For Families

&

&c.
(Latin, et cetera) meaning "and so forth" or "and also"

*

*.
born, birthdate

+

+.
dead, deathdate, married to, Symbolic of an Episcopal or Catholic Priest.

1

1C.
first cousin (2c, second cousin, etc.)
1R.
once removed (2r, twice removed, etc.)

@

@.
at

A

A
Aunt
A.A.
(Augustiniani Assumptionis also known as Assumptionists) This congregation had its origin in the College of the Assumption, established in Nîmes France, in 1843, by the Rev. Emmanuel d'Alzon vicar-general of that diocese. For more information see the Catholic Encyclopedia at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02104a.htm
A.B.
Artium Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Arts)
A.B.A.
Antoniani Benedictini Armeni also known as Mechitarists. They are Armenian Benedictines, founded by Mechitar in 1712. For more information see the Catholic Encyclopedia at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10102b.htm
A.C.
(Auditor Camerae) An official of the Roman Curia who originally had very extended powers, such as judging appeals against the decisions of bishops, and proceeding against bishops themselves in important cases and even punishing them without a special commission from the pope. He could also take cognizance of cases of criminal, and mixed jurisdiction in the States of the Church.
A.D.
(Ante Diem) "the day before". For example; the phrase, "Ante Diem VI or Sextum Kal. Apriles", menas the sixth day before the Calends of April, counting both the Calends and the day intended to be indicated. Or (Anima Dulcis) which means "Sweet Soul".
A.M.
Artium Magister ("Master of Arts")
A.M.
(Latin Ante Meridiem) "Ante" translates to "before", Meridiem translates to "meridian" which refers to an imaginary line running from the southern horizon, passing directly overhead then ending at the northern horizon thus dividing the sky in to two halves. When the sun is in the eastern half of the sky it was be said to be "Ante Meridiem", or before the meridian, or in modern terms "before noon".
A.M.D.G.
(Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam) translates to "For the greater glory of God" which is the moto of the "Daughters of the Queen of Heaven, Fillie Regine Coeli", a religious and charitable society founded at St. Louis, Mo., 5 Dec., 1889, by Miss Mary Hoxsey. For more information, see the Catholic Encyclopedia at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/16069a.htm
A.Q.I.C.
(Anima Quiescat In Christo) translates to "May his or her Soul Repose in Christ"
A.R.S.
(Anno Reparatae Salutis) translates to "In the year of Our Redemption"
A.U.
(Alma Urbs) can be translated to "Beloved City". The phrase is oftened used as a synonym for the city of Rome, Italy.
AAONMS.
Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine
AASP
American Antiquarian Society Proceedings
AASR.
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite (of Freemasons)
AASRFM.
Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry
AB.
Bachelor of Arts
Ab.
Abbas ("Abbot")
ABER
**Aberdeenshire**, one of the 32 unitary council areas in Scotland. Aberdeenshire has a rich prehistoric and historic heritage. It is the locus of a large number of Neolithic and Bronze Age archaeological sites, including Longman Hill, Kempstone Hill, Catto Long Barrow and Cairn Lee. The present council area is named after the historic county of Aberdeen, which had different boundaries and was abolished in 1975 under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973. It was replaced by Grampian Regional Council and five district councils: Banff and Buchan, Gordon, Kincardine and Deeside, Moray and the City of Aberdeen. Local government functions were shared between the two levels. In 1996, under the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994, the Banff and Buchan district, Gordon district and Kincardine and Deeside district were merged to form the present Aberdeenshire council area, with the other two districts becoming autonomous council areas.
Abig.
Abigail
Abn
Agnes
Abp.
Archbishop
Abp.
Archbishop
Abp.
Archbishop
Abr.
Abraham
Abs.
Absens ("Absent")
Absoluo.
Absolutio ("Absolution")
AC
Ante Christum, ancestor chart
AC
Ante Christum ("Before Christ")
ACN
(Ante Christum Natum) translates to "Before the Birth of Christ".
Acous.
Acoustics
ACW.
American Civil War
Ad
Adopted
AD.
(Latin, Anno Domini) translates to "in the year of our Lord". It is used to represent the number of years since the birth of Christ. For example; 2011 AD or Annon Domini 2011 means "in the year of our Lord 2011" which is intended to mean 2011 years since the birth of Christ. However, the AD/BC calendaring system was based on a sixth-century estimate for the year in which Jesus was conceived or born. This year numbering system was devised by the monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Diocletian years because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number years from an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus. Scholars today generally agree that he miscalculated the year of Christ's birth with most scholars placing the event in what would today be numbered 4 BC.
AD.
(Latin, Anno Domini) translates to "in the year of our Lord". It is used to represent the number of years since the birth of Christ. For example; 2011 AD or Annon Domini 2011 means "in the year of our Lord 2011" which is intended to mean 2011 years since the birth of Christ. However, the AD/BC calendaring system was based on a sixth-century estimate for the year in which Jesus was conceived or born. This year numbering system was devised by the monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Diocletian years because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number years from an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus. Scholars today generally agree that he miscalculated the year of Christ's birth with most scholars placing the event in what would today be numbered 4 BC.
AdCl
adopted child
AdCl
Adopted child
AdD
Adopted daughter
AdD.
adopted daughter
AdGcl
Adopted grandchild
AdM
Adopted mother
Adm. Rev.
Admodum Reverendus ("Very Reverend")
Admon.
letters of administration (related to British wills)
AdS
adopted son
AdS
Adopted son
Adv.
Adventus ("Advent")
AEOS.
Ancient Egyptian Order of Sciots (Masons)
AF&AM.
Ancient, Free, & Accepted Masons
AF.
Ancestral File database maintained by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
AFAM.
Ancient Free and Accepted Mason
AFRA.
American Family Records Association
AG.
Accredited Genealogist (FHL credential)
Ag. Lab.
Agricultural Labourer (British censuses)
AGBU.
Armenian General Benevolent Union
AGLL.
American Genealogical Lending Library
Agn.
Agnes
AGRA.
Association of Genealogists and Record Agents (Professional)
Agric.
Agriculture
AHOJB.
Ancient and Honorable Order of the Jersey Blues
AIF.
Australian Imperial Forces
AIS.
Accelerated Indexing System
AISB.
Ancient Illuminated Seers of Bavaria
AL
American Legion
Al
Aunt-in-law
Alb.
Albus ("White" Breviary)
Alban.
Albanian
Alex.
Alexander
Alf.
Alfred or Alphonse
Alg.
Algebra
Alr.
Aliter ("Otherwise")
AM.
Master of Arts, Latin, anno mundi meaning year of the world, Latin, ante meridiem meaning before noon
Am.
Amos
Am. Cyc.
Appleton's American Cyclopedia
Am. Rev.
American Revolution, American War for Independence
Am., Amer.
America, American
Amb.
Ambrose
AMINDEX.
Index of emigrants from British Isles to USA and West Indies
AMORC.
Ancient Mystic Order Rosae Crucis
AMOS.
Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (Odd Fellows)
AMVETS.
American Veterans
An.
Annus ("Year")
An.
Anne or Anna
Ana, Ant.
Antiphon
Anal. Geom.
Analytical Geometry
Anat.
Anatomy
Anc.
Ancient, anciently
And.
Andrew
ANGL
**Anglesey** /ˈæŋɡəlsi/, also known by its Welsh name Ynys Môn [ˈənɨs ˈmoːn], is an island and, as Isle of Anglesey, a county off the north west coast of Wales. Two bridges, spanning the Menai Strait, connect it to the mainland: the original Menai Suspension Bridge (carrying the A5), designed by Thomas Telford in 1826; and the more recently constructed Britannia Bridge (originally designed by Robert Stephenson); which carries the A55 and the North Wales Coast Railway Line. Historian and author John Davies argues that it was during the tumultuous 10th century that the Norse name for Môn, Anglesey, came into existence; the name was later adopted into English after Anglo-Norman occupiers arrived to conquer the island during the Norman invasions of Gwynedd. The name Anglesey was later used in the English language as a county name which included Holy Island and other nearby small islands. About half of the inhabitants can speak, read and write Welsh as well as English, and 70% have a knowledge of Welsh. Once the Welsh language was granted equal status in government with the Welsh Language Act, the representative constituency names for the island were changed to the Welsh name of the island, Ynys Môn (UK Parliament constituency) in the UK parliament, and Ynys Môn (Assembly constituency) in the National Assembly for Wales. With an area of 720 square kilometers (278 sq mi), Anglesey is the largest Welsh island, the sixth largest surrounding the island of Great Britain, and the largest island in the Irish Sea ahead of the Isle of Man.
Angl. Ch.
Anglican Church
ANGU
**Angus** (Aonghas in Gaelic) is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland, a registration county and a lieutenancy area. The council area borders Aberdeenshire, Perth and Kinross and Dundee City. Angus was historically a county (known officially as Forfarshire from the eighteenth century until 1928, when it reverted to its ancient name) until 1975 when it became a district of the Tayside Region. In 1996, two-tier local government was abolished and Angus was established as a unitary authority. The former county had borders with Kincardineshire to the north-east, county of Aberdeenshire to the north and Perthshire to the west. Southwards, it faced Fife across the Firth of Tay. The boundaries of the present council area are exactly the same as those of the old county minus the City of Dundee.
Ann.
Anni ("Years")
Ant.
Anthony
Anth.
Anthony
Antiq.
Aniquities
AOB.
Air Order of Battle
AOD.
Ancient Order of Druids
AODC.
Ancient Order of Degree Coopermen
AOF.
Ancient Order of Foresters
AOH.
Ancient Order of Hibernians
AOP
American Order of Pioneers
AOUW.
Ancient Order of United Workmen
Ap
apprentice
Ap
Apprentice
Ap. Sed.
Apostolica Sedes ("Apostolic See")
Ap. Sed. Leg.
Apostolicae Sedis Legatus ("Legate of the Apostolic See")
APCWS.
Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites
APG.
Association of Proferssional Genealogists, headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
APJI
Association for Protection of Jewish Immigrants
Apost.
Apostolus ("Apostle")
App. Div.
Appelate division
Appatis.
Approbatis ("Having been approved")
Applica.
Apostolica ("Apostolic")
AQM.
Assistant Quartermaster (US Civil War)
AQRS.
Assistant Quartermaster Remount Service (US Civil War)
AR.
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, Frederick Weis
Ar.
Arabic
AR7.
AR above, Seventh Edition (current)
ARC.
American Red Cross
Arch.
Architecture
Arch. Pub. Soc.
Architectural Pub. Society
Archid.
Archidiaconus ("Archdeacon")
Archiep.
Archiepiscopus ("Archbishop")
Archiepus.
Archiepiscopus ("Archbishop")
Archiprb.
Archipresbyter ("Archpriest")
ARGY
**Argyll and Bute** (Scottish Gaelic: Earra-Ghaidheal agus Bòd pronounced [ɛrˠəˈɣɛːəlˠ̪ ɪs̪ pɔːtʲ]) is both one of 32 unitary council areas; and a Lieutenancy area in Scotland. The administrative centre for the council area is located in Lochgilphead. Argyll and Bute covers the second largest administrative area of any Scottish council. Including islands, there are over 3,000 miles (4,800 km) of coastline, and this is claimed to be more than for the whole of France. The council area adjoins those of Highland, Perth and Kinross, Stirling and West Dunbartonshire. Its border runs through Loch Lomond. The present council area was created in 1996, when it was carved out of the Strathclyde region, which was a two-tier local government region of 19 districts, created in 1975. Argyll and Bute merged together the existing Argyll and Bute district and one ward of the Dumbarton district. The Dumbarton ward, called 'Helensburgh and Lomond', included the burgh of Helensburgh and consisted of an area to the west of Loch Lomond, north of the Firth of Clyde and mostly east of Loch Long. The council area can be described also by reference to divisions of the counties which were abolished in 1975. The council area includes most of the county of Argyll (Argyll minus the Morvern area, north of Mull, which became become part of the Highland region in 1975), part of the county of Bute (the Isle of Bute) and part of the county of Dunbartonshire (the Helensburgh and Lomond ward).
Arith.
Arithmetic
Arm., Armor.
Armorican
ARSS.
Antiquariorum Regiae Societatis Socius (Fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries)
Art.
Arthur
AS.
Anglo-Saxon
ASCII.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange a type of file on a computer that is usually readable / writable by most word processors
ASFD.
American Society of Freedmen's Descendants
ASG
American Society of Genealogists
ASN.
Army Serial Number
Asst
assistant
Asst
Assistant
Astrol.
Astrology
Astron.
Astronomy
At
Attendant
At.
Attendant
Aucte.
Auctoritate ("By the Authority")
Aug.
Augustus
Authen.
Authentica ("Authentic" e.g. letters)
Aux.
Auxilium, Auxilio ("Help", "With the help of")
AWOL.
Absent Without Leave (military)
AYR
**Ayrshire and Arran** is a lieutenancy area of Scotland. It consists of the Scottish council areas of East Ayrshire, North Ayrshire and South Ayrshire. The area has joint electoral, valuation and health boards. For electoral and valuation purposes, the same area is simply called Ayrshire. Ayrshire (Scots: Coontie o Ayrshire; Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Inbhir Àir, pronounced [ʃirˠəxk iɲiˈɾʲaːɾʲ]) is a registration county, and former administrative county in south-west Scotland, United Kingdom, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde. Its principal towns include Ayr, Kilmarnock and Irvine. Ayrshire, under the name the County of Ayr, is a registration county. The electoral and valuation area named Ayrshire covers the three council areas of South Ayrshire, East Ayrshire and North Ayrshire, therefore including the Isle of Arran, Great Cumbrae and Little Cumbrae. The three islands were part of the County of Bute until 1975 and are not always included when the term Ayrshire is applied to the region. The same area is known as Ayrshire and Arran in other contexts. The area became part of the kingdom of Scotland during the 11th century. In 1263, the Scots successfully drove off of the Norwegian leidang-army in a skirmish known as the Battle of Largs. A notable historic building in Ayrshire is Turnberry Castle, which dates from the 13th century or earlier, and which may have been the birthplace of Robert the Bruce. The historic shire or sheriffdom of Ayr was divided into three districts or bailieries which later made up the county of Ayrshire. The three districts were: 1. Carrick in the south. It was situated between the Doon and the wild district of Galloway in the adjoining Stewartries, an area that was little else than a vast tract of hills and mosses. 2. Kyle in the centre, which included the royal burgh of Ayr, occupied the central district between the Irwine on the north, and the Doon on the south and south-west, an area that is partly mountainous. It was subdivided into "Kyle Stewart", (sometimes called "Stewart Kyle" or "Walter's Kyle") and "King's Kyle," the former embracing the country between the Irvine and the Ayr; and the latter, the triangular portion between the Ayr and the Doon, which is honoured as the birth-place and youthful home of Robert Burns. 3. Cunninghame in the north which included the royal burgh of Irvine was that part of the county which lay north of the Irvine water, and was in an area that is generally level and fertile. The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889 established a uniform system of county councils in Scotland and realigned the boundaries of many of Scotland’s counties. Ayr county council was created in 1890, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889. In 1930 the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1929 was implemented. This re-designated the Burghs into large burghs and Small Burghs. This new categorisation influenced the level of autonomy that the Burghs enjoyed from the county council. The act also abolished the parish as a unit of local government in Scotland. In Ayrshire in excess of 30 parishes were consolidated into ten district councils. In May 1975 the county council was abolished and its functions transferred to Strathclyde Regional Council. The county area was divided between four new districts within the two-tier Strathclyde region: Cumnock and Doon Valley, Cunninghame, Kilmarnock and Loudoun and Kyle and Carrick. The Cunninghame district included the Isle of Arran, Great Cumbrae and Little Cumbrae, which had until then been administered as part of the County of Bute. In 1996 the two-tier system of regions and districts was abolished and Ayrshire was divided between the unitary council areas of East Ayrshire (covering the area of the former Kilmarnock & Loudon District and Cumnock & Doon Valley District), North Ayrshire (covering the area of the former Cunninghame District Council) and South Ayrshire (covering the area of the former Kyle and Carrick District).

a

a.
about; age; aged; acre; aunt; (Latin "ante") meaning "before"
a.
adjective
a.a.r.
against all risks
a.c.
attested copy, account current
a.d.
ante diem ("The day before")
a.k.a.
also known as
a.l.s.
autographed letter signed
a.o.
account of
a.w.c.
letters of administration with will and codicil annexed
aas.
(Latin, anno aetatis suae) pronounced an-oh i-tey-tis soo-ee, it means in the year of his or her age.
abbr.
abbreviation
abbrev.
abbreviated
abd.
abdicated
abl.
ablative
abr.
abridged, abridgment
abs.
abstract
abstr.
abstract
abt.
about
acad.
academy
acc.
according to, account, accompanied
acc.
accusative
acco.
account
accu.
accurate
ackd.
acknowledged
act.
active
actg.
acting
adj.
adjoining, adjutant, adjourned
adj.
adjective
adm.
admission, admitted
admin.
administration, administrator
admr.
administration
admx.
administratrix
ads.
(Latin, ad sectam) meaning "at the suit of"
adv.
adverb
ae/aet.
about the age of
afas.
aforesaid
afft.
affidavit
aft.
after
al.
alii, alibi, alias ("others", "elsewhere", "otherwise")
ald.
alderman
alleg.
allegiance
alpha.
alphabetical; alphabetically
als.
alias
altm.
at liberty to marry (Quaker)
anc.
ancestry, ancestor, ancient
annot.
annotated
ano.
another
anon.
anonymous
ant.
antiquary, antonym
antiq.
antiquary, antiquities, antiquity, antiquarian
aor.
aorist
apd.
attending places of diversion; appointed; appealed (Quaker)
app.
apprentice, aprpoximately, appendix, appointed
appon clam.
(Latin, apponit clamium) meaning "he or she stands by, joins or supports the claim"
appr.
appraisment
apprd.
apprised, appeared
approx.
approximately
apptd.
appointed
appx.
appendix
apt.
appointed
ar. co.
artillery company
arr.
arrived; arranged
ascert.
ascertain, ascertained
asgd.
assigned
asr.
assessor
assn.
association
asso.
associated, associate
assoc.
association
att.
attached to, attended (Quaker)
atty.
attorney
au.
gold
aud.
auditor
aug.
augmentative

B

B
Brother
B-i-l.
brother in law
B.
born; baptized; black; Negro
B. & Fl.
Beaumont & Fletcher
B. BB.
Beatus, Beati ("Blessed")
B. Jon.
Ben Jonson
B. Se.
Baccalaureus Scientiarum ("Bachelor of Sciences")
B., BMT.
Bene Merenti ("To the Well Deserving")
B.A.
Baccalaureus Artium ("Bachelor of Arts")
B.B.
Bail Bond
B.C.
(Before Christ) . It is used to represent the number of years before the birth of Christ. For example; 2011 BC is intended to mean 2011 years prior to the birth of Christ. However, the AD/BC calendaring system was based on a sixth-century estimate for the year in which Jesus was conceived or born. This year numbering system was devised by the monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Diocletian years because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number years from an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus. Scholars today generally agree that he miscalculated the year of Christ's birth with most scholars placing the event in what would today be numbered 4 BC or perhaps a few years earlier.
B.C.L.
Baccalaureus Civilis [or Canonicae] Legis ("Bachelor of Civil [or Canon] Law")
B.D.
Bachelor of Divinity
B.F.
Bona Fide ("In Good Faith")
B.F.
Bonae Feminae ("To the Good Woman")
B.I.C.
Bibas (for Vivas) In Christo ("May you Live In Christ")
B.L.W
Bount Land Warrant
B.M.
Bench Mark, British Museum
B.M.
Bonae Memoriae ("Of Happy Memory")
B.M.F.
Bene Merenti Fecit ("He erected this to the Well Deserving")
B.P.
Beatissime Pater ("Most Holy Father")
B.Q.
Bene Quiescat ("May he or she Rest Well")
B.S.
in court records, Bill of Sale
B.T.
Bishop's Transcripts
B.T.
Baccalaureus Theologiae ("Bachelor of Theology")
B.U.J.
Baccalaureus Utriusque Juris ("Bachelor of Both Laws" i.e., civil and canon)
B.V.
Beata Virgo ("Blessed Virgin")
B.V.M.
Beata Virgo Maria ("Blessed Virgin Mary")
BA.
Bachelor of Arts
BACSA.
British Association for Cemeteries in South Asia
BALH.
British Association for Local History
BANF
Banff
Bank.
Banking
Bar
Bartender
BAR.
Brigade of the American Revolution
Barb.
Barbara
BARE.
Benefit Association of Railway Employees
Bart.
Bartholomew
BBoy
bound boy
BBoy
Bound boy
BBS.
Bulletin Board System Phone dial up connection for PC's.
BC.
(Before Christ) . It is used to represent the number of years before the birth of Christ. For example; 2011 BC is intended to mean 2011 years prior to the birth of Christ. However, the AD/BC calendaring system was based on a sixth-century estimate for the year in which Jesus was conceived or born. This year numbering system was devised by the monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Diocletian years because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number years from an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus. Scholars today generally agree that he miscalculated the year of Christ's birth with most scholars placing the event in what would today be numbered 4 BC or perhaps a few years earlier.
BC.
(Before Christ) . It is used to represent the number of years before the birth of Christ. For example; 2011 BC is intended to mean 2011 years prior to the birth of Christ. However, the AD/BC calendaring system was based on a sixth-century estimate for the year in which Jesus was conceived or born. This year numbering system was devised by the monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Diocletian years because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number years from an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus. Scholars today generally agree that he miscalculated the year of Christ's birth with most scholars placing the event in what would today be numbered 4 BC or perhaps a few years earlier.
BCE
It is usually taken to mean "Before the Common Era" or "Before the Current Era" though some religous groups have recast it as "Before the Christian Era". All versions carry the same meaning as "BC" or "Before Christ". They are used to represent the number of years before the birth of Christ. For example; 2011 BCE or is intended to mean 2011 years prior to the birth of Christ. However, the CE/BCE calendaring system was based on a sixth-century estimate for the year in which Jesus was conceived or born. This year numbering system was devised by the monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Diocletian years because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number years from an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus. Scholars today generally agree that he miscalculated the year of Christ's birth with most scholars placing the event in what would today be numbered 4 BCE or perhaps a few years earlier.
BCE
Before the Common Era, Before the Christian Era, Before the Current Era, indicating the number of years before the birth of Christ
BCG
Board for Certification of Genealogists
BCR.
Battle Casualty Report
Beau. & Fl.
Beaumont & Fletcher
BEDF
Bedford
Ben.
Benedictio ("Blessing")
Ben.
Benjamin
Benevol.
Benevolentia ("Benevolence")
Benj.
Benjamin
BERK
Berkshire
BERW
Berwick
BG.
burial grounds
BGirl
bound girl
BGirl
Bound girl
BIA
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bib.
Biblical
Bib. Sacra
Bibliotheca Sacra
Bibliog.
Bibliography
Biol.
Biology
Bisc.
Biscayan
BK.
Brother's Keeper, a genealogy computer program
Bk. of Com. Prayer
Book of Common Prayer
Bl
brother-in-law
Bl
Brother-in-law
BL.
British Library
Blackw. Mag.
Blackwood's Magazine
BLM
Bureau of Land Management, Bount Land Warrant
BMD.
Births, Marriages and Deaths
BMP.
Bit Mapped Picture a graphical file format of a computer disk file
BNL.
Brotherhood of the New Life
Bo
Boarder
Bohem.
Bohemian
Bon. Mem.
Bonae Memoriae ("Of Happy Memory")
Bot.
Botany, botanical
Boy
Boy
Bp.
Bishop; baptized
Bp.
Bishop
BPOE.
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks
Brande & C.
Brande & Cox
Braz.
Brazilian
BREC
Brecknock / Brecon
Brid.
Bridget
Brit. Critic
British Critic
Brit. Quar. Rev.
British Quarterly Review
Bro.
Brother
BT.
Bishop's Transcript (British parish registers)
BTW.
By The Way (electronic communication, in general)
Bu
Butler
BUCK
Buckingham
Burl.
Burlesque
BUTE
Bute

b

b.d.
birth date
b.i.l.
brother-in-law
b.o.t.p.
both of this parish
bach.
bachelor
bap.
baptized, baptism
bapt.
baptized
bart.
baronet
batch.
bachelor
bcer
birth certificate
bd.
bound, buried
bdt.
birth date
bec.
because, became
bef.
before
beq.
bequest
bet.
between
biog.
biography
bish.
bishop
bks.
books, barracks
bndsmn.
bondsman
bo
bought, bottom
bot.
bought, bottom
bpl.
birthplace
bpt.
baptized
br-l.
brother-in-law
br.
brother
bro-i-l
brother-in-law
bro.
brother
bu.
buried
bur.
buried

C

C
Cousin
C of A
Coat of Arms
C.
Consul
C.
Centigrade
C. SS. R.
Congregatio Sanctissimi Redemptoris (Redemptorists)
C.C.
Curatus ("Curate" used chiefly in Ireland)
C.F.
Clarissima Femina ("Most Illustrious Woman")
C.J.M.
Congregatio Jesu et Mariae (Eudist Fathers)
C.M.
Causa Mortis ("On occasion of death")
C.M.
Congregatio Mariae (Fathers of the Company of Mary)
C.O.
Conjugi Optimo ("To my Excellent Husband")
C.O.B.Q.
Cum Omnibus Bonis Quiescat ("May he or she Repose With All Good souls")
C.P.
Clarissima Puella ("Most Illustrious Maiden")
C.P.
Congregatio Passionis (Passionists)
C.PP.S.
Congregatio Pretiosissimi Sanguinis (Fathers of the Most Precious Blood)
C.R.
Congregatio Resurrectionis (Resurrectionist Fathers)
C.R.C.S.
Clerici Regulares Congregationis Somaschae (Somaschi Fathers)
C.R.I.C.
Canonici Regulares Immaculatae Conceptionis ("Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception")
C.R.L.
Canonici Regulares Lateranenses ("Canons Regular of the Lateran")
C.R.M.
Clerici Regulares Minores ("Clerks Regular Minor", Mariani)
C.R.M.D.
Clerici Regulares Matris Dei ("Clerks Regular of the Mother of God")
C.R.M.I.
Clerici Regulares Ministrantes Infirmis ("Clerks Regular Attendant on the Sick", Camillini, Camilliani)
C.R.P.
Congregatio Reformatorum Praemonstratensium (Premonstratensians)
C.R.S.P.
Clerici Regulares Pauperum Matris Dei Scholarum Piarum ("Clerks Regular of the Poor Men of the Mother of God for Pious Schools", Piarists)
C.R.T.
Clerici Regulares Theatini (Theatines)
C.S. Sp.
Congregatio Sancti Spiritus (Holy Ghost Fathers)
C.S.B.
Congregatio Sancti Basilii (Basilians)
C.S.C.
Congregatio Sanctae Crucis (Fathers and Brothers of the Holy Cross)
C.S.P.
Congregatio Sancti Pauli (Paulists)
C.S.V.
Clerici Sancti Viatoris (Clerks, or Clerics, of St. Viateur)
C.SS.CC.
Congregatio Sacratissimorum Cordium (Missionaries of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary)
C18.
Eighteenth century (etc.)
CAD.
(English) Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds
CAER
**Carnarvon** and **Caernarvon** are older forms of the name of the town in North Wales currently known as Caernarfon. The older names, in place for centuries, were anglicised phonetic spellings; since the 1970s the Welsh spelling has been generally adopted. Most places and things named for Caernarfon were and still are named using the older spelling. Caernarfon (pronounced [kaɨrˈnarvɔn] or [kəɨrˈnar.von] or /kəˈnɑːvᵊn/) is a Royal town, community and port in Gwynedd, Wales, with a population of 9,611. It lies along the A487 road, on the east banks of the Menai Straits, opposite the Isle of Anglesey. The city of Bangor is 8.6 miles (13.8 km) to the northeast, while Snowdonia fringes Caernarfon to the east and southeast. Caernarvon and Carnarvon are archaic anglicised spellings of Caernarfon, but used rarely. Caernarfon derives its name from the Roman fortifications. In Welsh, the place was called "y gaer yn Arfon", meaning "the stronghold in the land over against Môn"; Môn is the Welsh name of the island of Anglesey. In 1221, a charter granted to the canons of Penmon priory, in Anglesey, by Llywelyn the Great, refers to Kaerinarfon, and Brut y Tywysogion uses the forms Kaerenarvon and Caerenarvon. An early alternative name was Caer Seiont. It is called Caer Aber Sei(o)n(t) ("the fort on the estuary of the river Seiont") in the medieval Welsh tale Breuddwyd Macsen ("Macsen's Dream"), and was also known as Caer Gystennin ("The Castle of Constantin"). Caernarfon is the county town of the historic county of Caernarfonshire. It is best known for the great stone-built Caernarfon Castle, built by Edward I, King of England and consequently sometimes seen as a symbol of English domination. Edward's architect, James of St. George, may well have modelled the castle on the walls of Constantinople, possibly being aware of the alternative Welsh name Caer Gystennin; in addition, Edward was a supporter of the Crusader cause. On higher ground on the outskirts of the town are the remains of an earlier occupation, the Segontium Roman Fort. Caernarfon was constituted a borough in 1284 by charter of Edward I. The charter, which was confirmed on a number of occasions, appointed the mayor of the borough Constable of the Castle ex officio. The former municipal borough was designated a royal borough in 1963. The borough was abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in 1974, and the status of "royal town" was granted to the community which succeeded it.
CAILS.
Certified American Indian Lineage Specialist (BCG credential)
CAIT
Caithness
CALS.
Certified American Lineage Specialist (BCG credential)
Cam.
Camera (Papal Treasury)
Cam. Ap.
Camera Apostolica ("Apostolic Camera" i.e. Papal Treasury)
CAMB
Cambridge
Can.
Canonicus
Canc.
Cancellarius ("Chancellor")
Canice.
Canonice ("Canonically")
CANINDEX.
Index of emigrants from British Isles to Canada and Newfoundland
Cant.
Canticles (Song of Solomon)
Cap
Captain
Cap.
captain, captured, captivity
Cap.
Capitulum ("Little Chapter" Breviary)
Cap. de seq.
Capitulum de Sequenti ("Little chapter of the following feast" Breviary)
Capel.
Capella ("Chapel")
CAR
National Society, Children of the American Revolution
CARD
Cardigan
Card.
Cardinalis ("Cardinal")
CARM
**Carmarthen** ( /ˌkɑrˈmɑrðən/ kar-mar-dhən; Welsh: Caerfyrddin pronounced [kɑːɨrˈvərðɪn]) is a community in, and the county town of, Carmarthenshire, Wales. It is sited on the River Towy 8 miles (13 km) north of its mouth at Carmarthen Bay. In 2001, the population was 14,648. Carmarthen lays claim to being the oldest town in Wales but the two settlements of Old and New Carmarthen were only united into a single borough in 1546. Carmarthen was the most populous borough in Wales between the 16th and 18th centuries and was described by William Camden as "the chief citie of the country". When Britannia was a Roman province, Carmarthen was the civitas capital of the Demetae tribe, known as Moridunum (meaning sea fort). Carmarthen is possibly the oldest town in Wales and was recorded by Ptolemy and in the Antonine Itinerary. The Roman fort is believed to date from AD75-77. A coin hoard of Roman currency was found nearby in 2006. Near the fort is one of seven surviving Roman amphitheatres in the United Kingdom and one of only two in Roman Wales (the other being at Isca Augusta or Roman Caerleon). It was excavated in 1968. The arena itself is 46 by 27 meters; the circumference of the cavea seating area is 92 by 67 meters. The strategic importance of Carmarthen was such that the Norman William fitz Baldwin built a castle, probably around 1094. The existing castle site is known to have been used since 1105. The castle was destroyed by Llywelyn the Great in 1215. In 1223, the castle was rebuilt and permission was received to wall the town and crenellate (a murage). Carmarthen was among the first medieval walled towns in Wales. In 1405, the town was taken and the castle was sacked by Owain Glyndŵr. The famous Black Book of Carmarthen, written around 1250, is associated with the town's Priory of St John the Evangelist and Teulyddog. During the Black Death of 1347-49, the plague was brought to Carmarthen via the thriving river trade. The Black Death "destroy'd and devastated" villages such as Llanllwch. Local historians place the plague pit, the site for mass burial of the dead, in the graveyard that adjoins the 'Maes-yr-Ysgol' and 'Llys Model' housing at the rear of St Catherine Street. According to some variants of the Arthurian legend, Merlin was born in a cave outside Carmarthen, with some noting that Merlin may be an anglicised form of Myrddin. Historians generally disagree with this interpretation of the name, preferring that Myrddin is a corruption of the Roman name but the story is popular. Many areas surrounding Carmarthen still allude to this, such as the nearby Bryn Myrddin (Merlin's Hill). Legend also had it that, when a particular tree called 'Merlin's Oak' fell, it would be the downfall of the town as well - Translated from Welsh, it reads: When Merlin's Oak comes tumbling down, down shall fall Carmarthen Town'. In order to stop this, the tree was dug up when it died and pieces are now in the museum. The occasional flooding of the appropriately-named Water Street has been attributed to ongoing redevelopment of the area. The Black Book of Carmarthen includes poems with references to Myrddin (Ymddiddan Myrddin a Thaliesin) and possibly to Arthur (Pa ŵr yw'r Porthor?). The interpretation of these is difficult because the Arthurian legend was already known by this time and many details of the modern form of the legend had been described by Geoffrey of Monmouth before the book was written. In addition, some of the stories appear to have been moved into Wales at some point before their recording in the book. Following the Acts of Union, Carmarthen became the judicial headquarters of the Court of Great Sessions for south-west Wales. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the dominant business of Carmarthen town was still agriculture and related trades, including woollen manufacture. Carmarthen was made a county corporate by charter of James I in 1604. The charter decreed that Carmarthen should be known as the 'Town of the County of Carmarthen' and should have two sheriffs. This was reduced to one sheriff in 1835 and the (now largely ceremonial) post continues to this day. Both the Priory and the Friary were abandoned during the dissolution of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII, the land being returned to the monarchy. Likewise, the chapels of St Catherine and St Barbara were lost, the church of St Peter's being the main religious establishment to survive this era. During the Marian persecutions of the 1550s, Bishop Ferrar of St David's was burnt at the stake in the market square - now Nott Square. A Protestant martyr, his life and death are recorded in John Foxe's famous book of martyrs.
Carp.
Carpentry
Catal.
Catalan
Cath.
Catherine
Cath. Dict.
Catholic Dictionary
Caus.
Causa ("Cause")
CC
County Clerk, County Court, County Commissioner, Company Commander
CC.
Consules ("Consuls")
CC. VV.
Clarissimi Viri ("Illustrious Men")
CCP
Court of Common Pleas
CCR.
(English) Calendar of Close Roles
CD.
Compact Disk an optical disk used with some PC's to store lots of data.
CDA
Colonial Dames of America, Catholic Daughters of America
CDIB
Certified Degree of Indian Blood
CE
Common Era,Christian Era,Current Era, indicating the number of years since the birth of Christ
CE
Common Era,Christian Era,Current Era, indicating the number of years since the birth of Christ
Celt.
Celtic
Cen. Eccl.
Censura Ecclesiastica ("Ecclesiastical Censure")
Cens.
Censuris ("Censures" abl. or dat. case)
CFI.
Computer File Index (precursor of IGI)
CFR.
(English) Calendar of Fine Rolls
CG
Certified Genealogist
CG.
Certified Genealogist
CGI.
Certified Genealogical Instructor (BCG credential)
CGL.
Certified Genealogical Lecturer (BCG credential)
CGRS.
Certified Genealogical Record Searcher (BCG credential)
CH
Court House
Ch.
Church
Ch. Hist.
Church History
Cha
chamber maid
Cha
Chamber Maid
CHAI
Channel Islands
Chald.
Chaldee
Charlt
Charlotte
Chas
Charles
Chem.
Chemistry
CHES
Cheshire
Chin.
Chinese
Chris.
Christopher
Chron.
Chronology, Chronicles
CIG.
Computer Interest Group (electronic communication, in general)
Cil
Cousin-in-law
CIM.
(English) Calendar of Inquisitions Miscellaneous
CIPM.
(English) Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem
Circumpeone.
Circumspectione ("Circumspection" abl. case)
Civ.
Civil
CJ
County Judge
Cl
child
Cl
Child
Cl. Cur.
Clerk of the Court
Cl. V.
Clarissimus Vir ("Most Illustrious Man")
Cl., Clico.
Clericus, Clerico ("Cleric")
Cla.
Clausula ("Clause")
CLAC
**Clackmannanshire**, often abbreviated to Clacks (Scots: Clackmannanshire and from the Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Chlach Mhannainn meaning 'Stone of Manau') is a local government council area in Scotland, and a lieutenancy area, bordering Perth and Kinross, Stirling and Fife. As Scotland's smallest historic county, it is often nicknamed 'The Wee County'. Between 1889 and 1975, the County of Clackmannan was a local government county, bordering on Perthshire, Stirlingshire and Fife. The council area was recreated in 1996, under the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994, with the boundaries of the former Clackmannan district of the Central region. Prior to the Central District being created in 1975 the area had historically been called Clackmannanshire and there was strong pressure to resurrect this title rather than hold to the rather bland title of "Central Region". Central Region had been created in 1975, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, to include the county of Clackmannan plus the Muckhart and Glendevon areas, formerly in the county of Perth. Technically these two areas had been transferred to Clackmannanshire in 1971 under a reorganisation of boundaries. According to the legislation of 1996, the council area was to have the name, Clackmannan, of the former district, but this was changed to Clackmannanshire, by the council using its own powers. Clackmannan, the old county town, is named after the ancient stone associated with the pre-Christian deity Manau or Mannan. The stone now rests on a larger stone beside the Tollbooth and Mercat Cross at the top of Main street, Clackmannan. Legend has it that Robert the Bruce mislaid his glove while in the area and, on asking where it was, was told "Look aboot ye". The county's coat of arms shows a pair of gloves.
Class.
Classical
Class. Myth.
Classical Mythology
Clem.
Clement
Clun.
Cluniacenses ("Monks of Cluny")
CMU.
Concrete Masonry Unit
CO
commanding officer, Colonial Office
Co.
county; company
Coa
Coachman
Cod.
Codex (Manuscript)
Cog. Leg.
Cognatio Legalis ("Legal Cognation")
Cog. Spir.
Cognatio Spiritualis ("Spiritual Cognation")
COI.
Conjugi ("To my Husband or Wife")
Coione.
Communione ("Communion" abl. case)
Col.
Colonel (military rank)
Col.
Colossians
Coll. Cone.
Collectio Conciliorum ("Collection of the Councils")
Com
Companion
Com.
Commerce, Common
Comm. Prec.
Commemoratio Praecedentis ("Commemoration of the preceding feast" Breviary)
Comm. Seq.
Commemoratio Sequentis ("Commemoration of the following feast" Breviary)
Compl.
Completorium ("Compline" Breviary)
Con.
Contra ("against")
Con. Sect.
Conic Sections
Cone.
Concilium ("Council")
Conf.
Confessor
Conf. Doct.
Confessor et Doctor (Breviary)
Conf. Pont.
Confessor Pontifex ("Confessor and Bishop" Breviary)
Confeone.
Confessione ("Confession" abl. case)
Cons.
Consecratio ("Consecration")
Consciae.
Conscientiae ("Of or to conscience")
Consecr.
Consecratus ("Consecrated")
Const.
Constance
Const. Ap.
Constitutio Apostolica ("Apostolic Constitution")
Constbus
Constitutionibus ("Constitutions" abl. or dat. case)
Cook
Cook
Copt.
Coptic
CORN
Cornwall
Corn.
Cornish
Corn.
Cornelius
COS.
Consul
COSS.
Consules ("Consuls")
Cotgr.
Cotgrave
CP & MR.
(English) Calendar of Plea and Memoranda Rolls
CP.
Compete Peerage, by G.E. Cokayne
CPAFUG.
a BBS operated by the Capital Personal Ancestral File Users Group strictly genealogy
CPR.
(English) Calendar of Patent Rolls
Cr.
Credo ("Creed" Breviary)
CRA
Church Records Archives
Crim. Law
Criminal Law
CRO.
County Record Office (British)
CRT.
Cathode Ray Tube old style picture tubes used in televisions and computer monitors. They are now obsolete having been replaced by various flat screen displays.
Crystallog.
Crystallography
CS.
Consul
CSA
Confederate States of America
Ct. F.
Court Files
Ct. R.
Court Records
CUMB
Cumberland
Cuth.
Cuthbert
CVA.
Confederate Veterans of America
CW
Civil War (specifically in the USA, 1861-1865), church warden
CWSS.
Civil War Soldiers and Sailors
Cyc.
Cyclopedia
Cyc. Med.
Cyclopedia of Practical Medicine

c

c, ca.
circa, about
c.
copyright, century, cousin, codicil, (Latin, circa) meaning "about" or "approximately", (Latin comitis) meaning "count"
c.r.
church report
c.s.
copy signed
c/o.
child of
ca.
(Latin, circa) meaning "about" or "approximately"
capt.
captain, captured, captivity
catal.
catalogue
cath.
cathedral
cem.
cemetery
cen.
census
cens.
census
cent.
century
cer.
certificate
cert.
certificate
cf.
confer
cf.
confer
ch.
child; children; church; chief; chaplain; chapel; chapter
ch/o
child of
chan.
chancery
chldn.
children
chlw.
Cotton Loom Hand Worker
chm.
condemned his/her misconduct (Quaker)
chn.
children
chr.
christened, Christian, charter
chris.
christened
cir.
circa
civ.
civil
clk.
clerk
cod.
codicil
codd.
codices
coh.
co-heir
coll.
college, collections
colloq., coll.
colloquial, colloquially
com.
commissioner, commander, commentary, committee, common, commoner, communicate, companion
com/comp.
complained (Quaker)
comm.
commissioners, committee
comp.
company
comp.
compound, compounded, composition
compar.
comparative
con.
condemned (Quaker)
confer.
conferred
conj.
conjunction
conject.
conjecture
cont.
continued
contr.
contract
contr.
contracted, contraction
corp.
corporal
corrupt.
corrupted, corruption
couns.
counsellor
cous.
cousin
coven.
covenant
crspd.
correspond, correspondence
csn.
cousin, cousins
ct.
court, citation, county, count, certificate
cuz.
cousin

D

D
Daughter
D-i-l.
daughter in law
D.
Depositus ("Laid to rest"), or Dulcis ("Dear One")
D.
Dutch (sometimes Daniel)
D.C.L.
Doctor Civilis or Canonicae Legis ("Doctor of Civil or Canon Law")
D.D.
Doctor Divinitatis ("Doctor of Divinity" i.e. Theology)
D.D.
Dedit, Dedicavit ("Gave", "Dedicated")
D.G.
Dei Gratia ("By the Grace of God")
D.I.P.
Dormit In Pace ("Sleeps in Peace")
D.M.
Diis Manibus ("To the Manes of")
D.M.S.
Diis Manibus Sacrum ("Sacred to the Manes of")
D.N.
Dominus Noster ("Our Lord")
D.N.
Domino Nostro ("To Our Lord")
D.N.J.C.
Dominus Noster Jesus Christus ("Our Lord Jesus Christ")
D.O.M.
Deo Optimo Maximo ("To God, the Best and Greatest")
D.R.
Decanus Ruralis ("Rural Dean")
D.Se.
Doctor Scientiarum ("Doctor of Sciences")
D.V.
Deo Volente ("God willing")
DA
District Attorney
DAB
Dictionary of American Biography
DAC
National Society of the Daughters of the American Colonists
Dan.
Danish
Dan.
Daniel
Danl
Daniel
DAR
Daughters of the American Revolution
DAV
Disabled American Veterans
Dav.
David
DB
Domesday Book, deed book
DBE.
Daughters of the British Empire
DBF.
Data Base Files (specifically for dBASE III and dBase IV)
DC
District of Columbia, Deputy Clerk, Deputy County Clerk
DC.
District Court (USA)
DCG
Descendants of Colonial Governors
DCLI.
Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry
DD.
Doctor of Divinity, minister
DD. NN.
Dominis Nostris ("To Our Lords")
DDS.
Domesday Descendents, Doctor of Dental Surgery
Deb.
Debora or Deborah
Dec.
Decanus ("Dean")
DED.
Declared Dead (military)
Def.
Defunctus ("Deceased")
Den.
Denis or Dennis
DENB
**Denbighshire** (Welsh: Sir Ddinbych) is a county in north-east Wales. It is named after the historic county of Denbighshire, but has substantially different borders. Denbighshire has the distinction of being the oldest inhabited part of Wales. Pontnewydd (Bontnewydd-Llanelwy) Palaeolithic site has remains of Neanderthals from 225,000 years ago. There are several castles in the region- Denbigh Castle, Rhuddlan Castle, Ruthin Castle, Castell Dinas Bran and Bodelwyddan Castle. The present principal area was formed on April 1, 1996, under the Local Government (Wales) Act 1994, from various parts of the county of Clwyd. It included the district of Rhuddlan (which was formed in 1974 entirely from Flintshire), the communities of Trefnant and Cefn Meiriadog from the district of Colwyn (which was entirely Denbighshire) and most of the Glyndŵr district. The part of the Glyndŵr district included the entirety of the former Edeyrnion Rural District, which was part of the administrative county of Merionethshire prior to 1974 – which covered the parishes of Betws Gwerfil Goch, Corwen, Gwyddelwern, Llangar, Llandrillo yn Edeirnion and Llansanffraid. Other principal areas containing part of historic Denbighshire are Conwy, which picked up the remainder of the 1974–1996 Colwyn, and also the Denbighshire parts of the 1974–1996 Aberconwy, and Wrexham, which corresponds to the pre-1974 borough of Wrexham along with most of the Wrexham Rural District and also several parishes from Glyndŵr. The post-1996 Powys includes the historic Denbighshire parishes of Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant, Llansilin and Llangedwyn, which had formed part of Glyndŵr district.
DEP.
Depositus ("Laid to rest")
DERB
Derbyshire
Deut.
Deuteronomy
DEVO
Devonshire
DFA.
descent from antiquity which is taken to mean pre-medieval
DFPA
Daughters of Founders and Patriots of America
Dial.
Dialectic
Diosc.
dioscorides
Discreoni.
Discretioni ("To the Discretion")
Disp.
Dispensatory
Dispensao.
Dispensatio ("Dispensation")
Disus.
Disused
Dl
Daughter-in-law
Dla
Day laborer
DLI.
Durham Light Infantry
DMWVI.
Descendants of Mexican War Veterans
DN
Dominus ("Lord")
DNS
Dominus ("Lord")
Dnus
Dominus ("Lord", "Sir", or "Mr.")
DNUS
Dominus ("Lord")
DOB.
Date of birth
DOCS.
Documents / Documentations
Doct.
Doctor (Breviary)
DOD.
Date of death
DOK.
Daughters Of the King
Dom
Domestic
Dom.
Dominica ("Sunday")
Dom. Econ.
Domestic Economy
Dor.
Dorothy
DORS
Dorsetshire
DOS.
Disk Operating System an early supervisory copmputer program that has been superceded by various graphical operating systems like Microsoft Windows.
Doug.
Douglas
DOW.
Died of Wounds (military)
Doxol.
Doxologia ("Doxology" Breviary)
DR
Daughter of the Revolution; Diocesan Registry
DRO.
Diocesan Record Office (British)
DRT.
Daughters of the Republic of Texas
DS
Deus ("God")
Dual Dating
A system of dating used in England and British North America from 1582-1752 for dates falling between January 1 and March 25. This practice resulted from the transition from the old Julian calendar to the new Gregorian calendar, which went into effect in 1582, but was not officially adopted by the British and the American colonies until 1752. The new Gregorian calendar recognized January 1 as the first day of the year, while the old Julian calendar recognized March 25 as the first day. Dates between January 1 and March 25 prior to the calendar change in 1752 were often written with both year numbers separated by a slash as in 5 January 1712/13.
Dublin Univ. Mag.
Dublin University Magazine
DUMF
**Dumfries and Galloway** (Scots: Dumfries an Gallowa; Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Phrìs is an Gall-Ghaidhealaibh, pronounced [t̪unˈfɾʲiʃ akəs̪ əŋ kaulˠ̪ɣəlˠ̪əv]) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It was created in 1975 by uniting the historic region of Galloway to the County of Dumfries (Dumfriesshire) for the purpose of council administration, hence "Dumfries and Galloway". To the north, the council borders onto South Ayrshire, East Ayrshire and South Lanarkshire; in the east the Borders; and to the south the county of Cumbria in England. It lies to the north of the Solway Firth and to the east of the Irish Sea. The region was created in 1975, by merging the former counties of Wigtownshire, Kirkcudbrightshire and Dumfriesshire as a two-tier region with the districts of Wigtownshire, Stewartry, Nithsdale and Annandale and Eskdale within it. In 1996 the region became a unitary authority area and the districts were wound up. After 1996 the unitary authority became known as Dumfries and Galloway Council, instead of Dumfries and Galloway Regional Council.
DUNB
Dunbarton
DUP.
Daughters of the Utah Pioneers; duplicate entry
Dupl.
Duplex ("Double feast" Breviary)
Dupl. I. Cl.
Duplex Primae Classis ("Double First Class feast" Breviary)
Dupl. II. Cl.
Duplex Secundae Classis ("Double Second Class feast" Breviary)
Dupl. Maj.
Duplex Major ("Double Major feast")
DURH
Durham
DVA.
Department of Veterans Affairs
DVF
Society of the Descendants of Washington's Army at Valley Forge
Dw
Dish washer
Dy
Dorothy
Dyn.
Dynamics

d

d'd.
deceased
d.
died, death, daughter, days, British pence
d.
dies ("day")
d. & coh.
daughter and coheiress
d. & h.
daughter and heiress
d. um.
died unmarried
d.s.
document signed, died single
d.s.p.
(Latin, descessit sine prole) meaning "died without issue" or "childless"
d.s.p.m.
(Latin, descessit sine prole mascula) meaning "died without male issue"
d.v.m.
(Latin, descessit victus matris) meaning "died while mother was living"
d.v.p.
(Latin, decessit victus patre) meaning "died while father was living"
d.y.
died young
d/o
daughter of
da.
daughter, day
dat.
dative
dau-i-l
daughter-in-law
dau.
daughter
daugr
daughter
daus.
daughters
dbn.
From the Latin de bonis non meaning of no good
dea
deacon
deac.
deacon
dec'd.
deceased, dead
dec.
deceased, dead
decd.
deceased, dead
decis.
decision
def.
definitions
degr.
degree
dep.
deputy, depot
dept.
department
desc.
descendant
devis.
devised
dil.
daughter-in-law
dim.
diminutive
dio.
diocese
dis.
discharge, disowned, disowned for (Quaker)
discip.
discipline
dist.
distance, district
div.
divorce, divorced, division
dn.
deacon
do.
(Latin, ditto) meaning "same", the same as the previous entry
doc
document
docum.
document
dom.
domestic
dp.
dropped plain dress (Quaker)
dpl.
death place
dr.
doctor, dram, drinking to excess (Quaker)
drpd.
dropped (Quaker)
ds.
deaths, daughters
dsct.
descendant
dsp.
(Latin, decessit sine prole) meaning "died without issue"
dspl.
(Latin, decessit sine prole legitima) meaning "died without legitimate issue"
dspm.
(Latin, decessit sine prole malus) meaning "died without sons"
dspml.
(Latin, decessit sine prole malus legitima) meaning "died without legitimate sons"
dspms.
(Latin, decessit sine prole malus suivre) meaning "died without surviving sons"
dsps.
(Latin, decessit sine prole suivre) meaning "died without surviving issue"
dt's.
delirium tremens
dt.
date, daughter, daughters
dtd.
dated
dto.
ditto
dtr.
daughter
dum.
died unmarried
dvm.
(Latin, decessit vita matris) meaning
dvp.
(Latin, decessit vita patris) meaning

E

E VIV. DISC.
E Vivis Discessit ("Departed from Life")
E.
Ecclesia ("The Church")
E.
English
E.D.
Enumeration District
E.V.
Ex Voto ("In Fulfilment of a Vow")
EBCDIC.
A computer data file format most often used on IBM mainframes.
Eben.
Ebenezer
Eccl.
Ecclesia ("The Church")
Eccl.
Ecclesiastical, Ecclesiastes
Eccl. Hist.
Ecclesiastical History
Ecclae.
Ecclesiae ("Of or to the Church")
Ecclis.
Ecclesiasticis ("Ecclesiastical")
Ecclus.
Ecclesiasticus
Eclec. Rev.
Eclectic Review
Ed. Rev.
Edinburgh Review
Edm.
Edmond or Edmund
Edrus
Edward
Edw.
Edward
Effum.
Effectum ("Effect")
Egypt.
Egyptian
El.
Electio, Electus ("Election", "Elect")
Elect.
Electricity, Electrical
Eliz.
Elizabeth
Elnr
Eleanor
EM.
Enlisted member (military)
Emp
employee
Emp
Employee
Emus
Eminentissimus ("Most Eminent")
En
engineer
En
Engineer
Encyc.
Encyclopedia
Encyc. Amer.
Encyclopedia Americana
Encyc. Crit.
Encyclopedia Britannica
Encyc. Dict.
Hunter's Encyclopedic Dictionary
Eng.
England
Eng.
England, English
Eng. Cyc.
English Cyclopedia
Engin.
Engineering
ENHA.
East Anglia National Heritage Area
Eod
(Latin, Eodem) meaning "at the same place or time". Used like ditto or do.
Eol.
Eolic
EP.
Episcopus ("Bishop")
Eph.
Ephesians
Ephes.
Ephesians
Episc.
Episcopus ("Bishop")
EPS
Episcopus ("Bishop")
Epus.
Episcopus ("Bishop")
ES.
Europ
Esd.
Esdras
ESSX
Essex
Esth.
Esther
Et.
Etiam ("Also, Even")
Etch. & Eng.
Etching & Engraving
Ethnol.
Ethnology
ETO.
European Theater of Operations (military)
EUS.
Evacuated to the U.S. (military)
Evang.
Evangelium ("Gospel" Breviary)
Ex.
Extra ("Outside of")
Ex.
Exodus
EX. TM.
Ex Testamento ("In accordance with the Testament of")
Excoe.
Excommunicatione ("Excommunication" abl. case)
Exe.
Excommunicatus, Excommunicatio ("Excommunicated, Excommunication")
Exit.
Existit ("Exists")
Exod.
Exodus
Ezek.
Ezekiel
Ezek.
Ezekiel

e

e.
ease, earl
e. g.
From the Latin exemplia gratia meaning (for example)
e.g.
(Latin, exempli gratia) meaning "for example"
easi.
easily
ecux.
executrix, a female executor
ed.
edited, edition, editor
educ.
education, educated
eld.
eldest
emph.
emphatic
end.
endorsed (Quaker)
eno.
enough
ens.
ensign
ensu.
ensuing
equiv.
equivalent
esp.
especially
esq.
esquire
est.
estate, established
establ.
establishment
estd.
estimated
et al.
(Latin, et ali, et alae, et alia) meaning "and others"
et. vir.
(Latin, et vir) meaning "and man" or "and husband". Commonly used in legal documents to signify an unidentified husband.
etc.
(Latin, et cetera) meaning "and so forth" or "and also"
etym.
etymology
etymol.
etymology
ex.
executor, executrix
exc.
except, excellency, excepted, exchange
exec.
executor
exor.
executor
exox.
executrix
exr.
executor
exs.
executors
extx.
executrix
exx.
executrix

F

F
Father
F&AM.
Free and Accepted Masons
F-i-l.
father in law
F.
Fecit ("Did"), or Filius ("Son"), or Feliciter ("Happily")
F.
French
F.A.
Field Artillery
F.B.
Family Bible
F.C.
Fieri Curavit ("Caused to be made")
F.F.
Fieri Fecit ("Caused to be made")
FAAO.
Fellow of the American Academy of Osteopathy
FACC.
Fellow of the American College of Cardiology
FACCE.
Fellow of the American College of Childbirth Educators
FACD.
Fellow of the American College of Dentists
FACE.
Fellow of the American College of Endocrinology
FACEP.
Fellow of the American College of Emergency Physicians
FACFAS.
Fellowship of American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
FACP.
Fellow of the American College of Physicians
FACS.
Fellow American College of Surgeons
FaH
farm hand
FaH
Farm hand
Fahr.
Fahrenheit
FaL
Farm laborer
FAQ.
Frequently Asked Questions
Far.
Farriery
FARC
Federal Archives and Records Centers (branches of the National Archives )
FAS.
Fellow of the Antiquarian Society
FASG.
Fellow of the American Society of Genealogists
FaW
farm worker
FaW
Farm worker
FB
Foster brother
FBG.
Friends burial ground
FE.
Family Edge genealogy software program
Fel. Mem.
Felicis Memoriae ("Of Happy Memory")
Fel. Rec.
Felicis Recordationis ("Of Happy Memory")
Fer.
Feria ("Weekday")
Feud.
Feudal
FF
Foster father
FF's
First Families
FF.
Fratres ("Brothers"), Filii ("Sons")
FFHS.
Federation of Family History Societies (British) Benson Room,Birmingham & Midland Institute,Margaret Street Birmingham,B3 3BS,UK
FFV
First Families of Virginia
FGRA
Family Group Record Archives
FGRA.
Family Group Record Archives
FGS
Federation of Genealogical Societies, family group sheet
FHC.
Family History Center (LDS satellite centers)
FHL.
Family History Library (LDS main library in Salt Lake City Utah)
FHLC.
Family History Library Catalog
FHS.
Family History Society also Family History System, a program by Phillip E. Brown
Fi
fireman
Fi
Fireman
Fig.
Figurative, figuratively
FIGRS.
Fellow of the Irish Genealogical Research Society
Fin.
Finnish
First C
First cousin
FL
father-in-law
FL
Father-in-law
FLIN
Flint
FLT.
Friendship Love & Truth (on tombstones -- see also IOOF & IORM)
FM
foster mother
FM
Foster mother
FNGS.
Fellow of the National Genealogical Society
FNHC.
Founders of the New Haven Colony
FoB
Foster brother
FoE.
Fraternal Order of Eagles
FOIA.
Freedom of Information Act
FOP.
Fraternal Order of Police (USA)
For. Quart. Rev.
Foreign Quarterly Review
Fort.
Fortification
FoS
Foster son
FoSi
Foster sister
FR
Family Registry
Fr.
Frater ("Brother")
Fr.
French
Fr., F.
Frater, Frere ("Brother")
FRACP.
Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians
FRAM.
Fellow of the Royal Academy of Music
FRCP.
Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians
FRCPE.
Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
FRCSI.
Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland
Frds.
Friends (Quaker)
Fred
Frederick
Fries.
Friesic
FRS.
Fellow of the Royal Society
Frum.
Fratrum ("Of the Brothers")
Fs
Francis
FS.
Fossor ("Digger")
FSA.
Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries
FSG.
Fellow of the Society of Genealogists
FTM.
Family Tree Maker genealogy program from Banner Blue Software
FTP.
File Transfer Protocol used primarily to transfer files over the internet
FTW.
Family Tree Maker for Windows (software)
FUGA.
Fellow of the Utah Genealogical Association
Fund.
Fundatio ("Foundation")
FWIW.
For What It's Worth (electronic communication in general)
FYI.
For Your Information (electronic communication in general)

f

f.
father, female, folio, feast, feet, farm, following
f.e.
for example
f.inl
father-in-law
f.m.
free mulato, (Latin, feodum militis) meaning "knight's fee"
f.n.
free negro
fa.
father
fam.
family
father-in-l
father-in-law
fem.
feminine
ff.
following (pages), foster father
fidel.
fidelity
fil.
father-in-law
fl.
(Latin, flourit) meaning "he lives"
fmc.
free man of color
fo.
folio
foll.
following; followed
form.
formerly
fpc.
free person of color, neither Caucasian nor enslaved
fr.
from
freem.
freeman, freemen
freq.
frequentative
ft.
foot, fort
fut.
future
fwc.
free woman of color
fwf.
free white female
fwm.
free white male

g

g.
grand, great
g.r.
grave record
g.s.
grave stone
g.s.w.
gun shot wound
gc.
granted certificate (Quaker)
gch. or gcl
grandchildren
gct.
granted certificate to (Quaker)
gdn.
guardian
geb.
(German, geboren) meaning
gen.
general
gen.
generally, genitive
gent.
gentleman
gest.
(German, gestorben) meaning
giv.
given, giving
gl.
granted letter
glt.
granted letter to
gm.
grandmother
godf.
godfather
godm.
godmother
govt.
government
gp.
grandparents
gr dau.
granddaughter
gr s.
grandson
gr.
grand, great, grant, graduate
grf.
grandfather
grmo.
grandmother
grs.
grandson
gt. gr.
great grand

G

G.
German
G.B.
Great Britain
GA
great aunt
GA
Great aunt
Gab.
Gabriel
Gael.
Gaelic
Gal.
Galen
Galv.
Galvanism
GAOTU.
Great Architect of the Universe (Freemason Word)
GAR
Grand Army of the Republic
GARD.
acronym for Gateway Ancestor of Royal Descent
Gcl
Grandchild
GCVO.
Grand Cross of the (Royal) Victorian Order (knight)
GD
Granddaughter
GD.
granddaughter
GED.
A computer data file format for exchanging genalogical data, a computer program by Dollarhide Systems for indexing sources.
GEDCOM
GEnealogical Data COMmunication
Gen.
Generalis ("General")
Geneal.
Genealogy
GENEALOG.
Genealogy storage of textual help files on ROOTS-L
Gent. Mag.
Gentleman's Magazine
Geo.
George
Geof.
Geoffrey
Geog.
Geography
Geol.
Geology
Geom.
Geometry
Ger.
Germanic or German
GF
grandfather
GF
Grandfather
GGF
great-grandfather
GGF
Great-grandfather
GGGF
great-great-grandfather
GGGF
Great-great-grandfather
GGGM
great-great-grandmother
GGGM
Great-great-grandmother
GGM
great-grandmother
GGM
Great-grandmother
GH
Genelaogical Helper
GIF.
A format to hold images on a computer disk file
GIM.
Genealogical Information Manager
Gk.
Greek
Gl.
Gloria ("Glory to God", etc.)
GLAM
Glamorgan
GLC
Genealogical Library Catalog
GLO
General Land Office
GLOU
Gloucester
GM
Grandmother
Gml
Grandmother-in-law
GN
Grand or great nephew
Gnalis
Generalis ("General")
GNi
Grand or great niece
Go
Governess
Go.
governess
God Cl
God child
Godf.
Godfrey
GOONS.
Guild Of One Name Studies
Goth.
Gothic
Gov. of Tongue
Government of the Tongue
GPAI
Genealogical Periodical Annual Index
Gr.
Gratia ("Grace")
Gr.
Greek
Gr.Yd.
grave yard
Grad.
Gradus ("Grade")
Gram.
Grammar
GRB.
General Reference Book
GRD.
Genealogical Research Directory
Great.
Gratias ("Thanks"); or Gratis ("Without expense")
Greg.
Gregory
Gregorian Calendar
The Gregorian calendar, also known as the Western calendar, or Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree or "papal bull" signed on 24 February 1582. Only four Catholic countries adopted the new calendar on the date specified by the bull. Other Catholic countries experienced some delay before adopting the reform; and non-Catholic countries, not being subject to the decrees of the Pope, initially rejected or simply ignored the reform altogether. Although most countries eventually adopted the Gregorian calendar, the adoption was sporadic. For example; Turkey officially continued to use the Julian calendar until 1926 when it finally transitioned to the Gregorian calendar.
Gris.
Grisons
GRO.
General Registry Office (St Catherine's House, British)
GS
Grandson
GS.
grandson
GSDS.
Genealogy Software Distribution System
Gsl
Grand son-in-law
GSSR.
General Society, Sons of the Revolution
GSW 1812
General Society of the War of 1812
Gt. Br.
Great Britain
GTT
Gone to Texas
GU
great uncle
GU
Great uncle
Gua
guardian
Gua
Guardian
Guest
Guest
Gul.
William
Gun.
Gunnery

h

h.
husband; heir; heiress; hour
h/o.
husband of
hdgrs.
headquarters
hebd.
Hebdomada ("Week")
her.
heraldry
hers.
herself
hims.
himself
hist.
historian
hon.
honorable
hon. dis.
honorably discharged
honor.
honorary
honora.
honorably
hor.
hora ("hour")
hund.
hundred
hus.
husband
hypoth.
hypothetical

H

H.
Haeres ("Heir"), Hic ("Here")
H.
High
H.Gi
Hired girl
H.L.S.
Hoc Loco Situs ("Laid or Put in This Place")
H.M.F.F.
Hoc Monumentum Fieri Fecit ("Caused This Monument to be Made")
H.S.
Hic Situs ("Laid Here")
Hab.
Habakkuk
Hag.
Haggai
Ham. Nav. Encyc.
Hamersly's Naval Encyclopedia
HAMP
Hampshire
Han.
Hannah
Hb
Half brother
Hbl
Half brother-in-law
He
Herder
Heb.
Hebrew
HEIC
Honourable East India Company
Hel.
Helen
Help
Help
Hen.
Henry
Her.
Heraldry
Herb.
Herbert
HERE
Hereford
HERT
Hertford
HF.
handfast
Hh
hired hand
Hh
Hired hand
Hind.
Hindostanee
Hipp.
Hippocrates
Hist.
History
Hk
housekeeper
Hk
Housekeeper
Hlg
Hireling
HLI.
Highland Light Infantry, Herefordshire Light Infantry
Hm
Hired man
HM.
His or Her Majesty, hired man
HMaid
Housemaid
HMS
Her or His Majesty's Service or Ship
HMSO.
Her Majesty's Stationery Office (British)
Hom.
Homilia ("Homily" Breviary)
Horol.
Horology
Hort.
Horticulture
HOSJG.
Hospitaller Order of St. John of God
HSA
Huguenot Society of America
HSi
Half sister
HSil
Half sister-in-law
Humil.
Humiliter ("Humbly")
Humoi.
Hujusmodi ("Of this kind")
Hung.
Hungarian
HUNT
Huntingdon
Husband
Husband
Hw
Houseworker
Hy
Henry
Hydraul.
Hydraulics
Hydros.
Hydrostatics

I

I
Inmate
I.H.S.
Iesus Hominum Salvator (The usual interpretation is "Jesus Saviour of Men"). However, this is really a faulty Latin transliteration of the first three letters of *JESUS in Greek (IHS being incorrectly used in place of IHC).
I.L.H.
Jus Liberorum Habens ("Possessing the Right of Children" meaning the eligibility to hold public office under age)
I.X.
In Christo ("In Christ")
IC
Jesus (first and third letters of His name in Greek)
Icel.
Icelandic
Id.
Idus ("Ides")
ID.
Idibus ("On the Ides")
IDNE.
Indictione ("In the Indiction" a chronological term)
IGI
International Genealogical Index
Igr.
Igitur ("Therefore")
Igr.
Igitur ("Therefore")
IGS.
Irish Genealogical Society
IHGS.
Institute of Heraldic and Genealogical Studies
IIGS.
International Internet Genealogical Society
ILL.
Inter Library Loan
Illust.
Illustration, Illustrated
IMAN
**The Isle of Man** ( /ˈmæn/; Manx: Ellan Vannin,[2] pronounced [ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn]), otherwise known simply as Mann (Manx: Mannin, IPA: [ˈmanɪn]), is a self-governing British Crown Dependency, located in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, within the British Isles. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann. The Lord of Mann is represented by a Lieutenant Governor. The island is not part of the United Kingdom, but its foreign relations and defence are the responsibility of the UK Government. Although it does not usually interfere in the island's domestic matters, its "good government" is ultimately the responsibility of the Crown (i.e., in practice, the Government of the United Kingdom). The island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. It began to be influenced by Gaelic culture in the AD 5th century and the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, gradually emerged. In the 9th century, the Norse began to settle there. A Norse-Gaelic culture emerged and the island came under Norse control. In 1266, the island became part of Scotland. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal overlordship of the English Crown in 1399. The lordship revested into the British Crown in 1764 but the island never became part of the United Kingdom and retained its status as an internally self-governing jurisdiction. The origin of the name Isle of Man is unclear. In the Manx Gaelic language the Isle of Man is known as Ellan Vannin, where ellan is a Gaelic word meaning island. The earliest form of 'Man' is Manu or Mana giving the genitive name Manann leading to the word Mannin, which is lenited when used after the feminine word Ellan, giving Mhannin. As mh is pronounced like a v in Goidelic languages, in modern Manx the name becomes Ellan Vannin. These forms are related to the figure of Celtic mythology known as Manannán to the Irish and Manawydan to the Welsh. The name enters recorded history as Mona (Julius Caesar, 54 BC), and is also recorded as Monapia or Monabia (Pliny the Elder, AD 77), Monœda (Ptolemy, AD 150), Mevania or Mænavia (Paulus Orosius, 416), and Eubonia or Eumonia by Irish writers. In Welsh records it is Manaw, and in the Icelandic sagas it is Mön. Though Mann was never incorporated into the Roman Empire, the island was noted in Greek and Roman accounts where it was called variously Monapia, Mοναοιδα (Monaoida), Mοναρινα (Monarina), Menavi and Mevania. The Old Welsh and Old Irish names for Mann, Mano and Manau, also occur in Manau Gododdin, the name for an ancient district in north Britain along the lower Firth of Forth. The name is probably connected with the Welsh name of the island of Anglesey, Ynys Môn and possibly with the Celtic root reflected in Welsh mynydd, Breton menez, Scottish Gaelic monadh mountain. These probably derive from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- to tower referring to the island apparently rising out of the Irish Sea on the horizon. The Neolithic Period marked the coming of knowledge of farming, better stone tools and pottery. It was during this period that megalithic monuments began to appear around the island. Examples from this period can be found at Cashtal yn Ard near Maughold, King Orry's Grave in Laxey, Meayll Circle near Cregneash, and Ballaharra Stones in St John's. This was not the only Neolithic culture; there were also the local Ronaldsway and Bann cultures. During the Bronze Age, the large communal tombs of the megalith builders were replaced with smaller burial mounds. Bodies were put in stone lined graves along with ornamental containers. The Bronze Age burial mounds created long lasting markers about the countryside. According to John T. Koch and others, the Isle of Man in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that also included the other Celtic nations, England, France, Spain and Portugal, and ancient Tartessus, and may have been where Celtic languages developed. The Iron Age marked the beginning of Celtic cultural influence. Large hill forts appeared on hill summits, and smaller promontory forts along the coastal cliffs, while large timber-framed roundhouses were built. It is likely that the first Celtic tribes to inhabit the Island were of the Brythonic variety. Around the 5th century AD, cultural influence from Ireland, probably along with some degree of migration, precipitated a process of Gaelicisation, evidenced by Ogham inscriptions, giving rise to the Manx language, which remains closely related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic. Viking settlement of Mann began at the end of the 8th century. The Vikings established Tynwald and introduced many land divisions that still exist. They also left the Manx Runestones. Although the Manx language does contain Norse influences, they are few. The Norse Kingdom of Mann and the Isles was created by Godred Crovan in 1079 after the Battle of Skyhill. During Viking times, the islands of this kingdom were called the Súðreyjar or Sudreys ("southern isles") in contrast to the Norðreyjar ("northern isles") of Orkney and Shetland. This later became Anglicised as Sodor. The Church of England diocese is still called the Diocese of Sodor and Man although it only covers Mann.[26] (When the Rev. W.V. Awdry wrote The Railway Series, he invented the island of Sodor as an imaginary island located between Mann and the Cumbrian coast.) In 1266, as dictated in the Treaty of Perth, Norway's King Magnus VI ceded the isles to Scotland. Mann came under English control in the 14th century. During this period the Isle was dominated by the Stanley family, who also held the title of Earl of Derby, who had been given possession of Mann by King Henry IV. In 1703, the Act of Settlement secured peasant rights and marked the beginning of a move away from feudal government. In 1765, however, the British Crown secured a greater control over the island, without incorporating it into Great Britain, laying the grounds for the island's status as a Crown dependency. In 1866, greater autonomy was restored to the island's parliament and a full transition to democracy began.
IMHO.
In My Humble Opinion ( electronic communication, in general)
IMNSHO.
In My Not So Humble Opinion ( electronic communication, in general)
Imp. Dict.
Imperial Dictionary
INB.
In Bono ("In Good odour")
Ind.
Indians
Ind.
Index
IND.
Indictione ("In the Indiction" a chronological term)
Ind. T.
Indian Territory
Ind. Ter.
Indian Territory
Ind. W.C.
Indian Widow's Certificate United States army veterans of Inddian Wars that occured from 1817 to 1868 were eligible to receive pensions for claims dating from 1892 to 1926. The claims are classified as Indian survivors, originals, Indian survivors’ certificates, Indian widows’ originals, and Indian widows’ certificates. These files are indexed, and the microfilmed indexes are available at various libraries throughout the United States. The original pension files are located at the United States National Archives.
IND.S.C.
Indian Survivors' Certificates United States army veterans of Inddian Wars that occured from 1817 to 1868 were eligible to receive pensions for claims dating from 1892 to 1926. The claims are classified as Indian survivors, originals, Indian survivors’ certificates, Indian widows’ originals, and Indian widows’ certificates. These files are indexed, and the microfilmed indexes are available at various libraries throughout the United States. The original pension files are located at the United States National Archives.
Infraptum.
Infrascriptum ("Written below")
INP
In Pace ("In Peace")
Inq.
Inquisitio ("Inquisition")
Inst. Char.
Institutum C(h)aritatis (Rosminians)
Internat. Cyc.
International Cyclopeia
Intropta.
Introscripta ("Written within")
INVE
Inverness
IOF.
Independent Order of Foresters
IOGT.
Independent Order of Good Templars
Ioh.
John
IOJD.
International Order of Job's Daughters (freemason)
Ion.
Ionic
IOOF.
Independent Order of Odd Fellows (fraternal organization)
IOR.
Independent Order of Rechabites
IORG.
International Order of the Rainbow for Girls (freemasonry)
IORM.
Improved Order of Red Men
IOUAM.
Improved Order of United American Mechanics
Ir.
Irish
IRAD.
Illinois Regional Archive Depository
IRC.
International Reply Coupon
Irregulte.
Irregularitate ("Irregularity" abl. case)
Is.
Idus ("Ides")
Is.
Isaiah
Isa.
Isaiah
Isb.
Isabel
ISBN.
International Standard Book Number
ISO.
In Search Of
ISSN.
International Standard Serial Number
It.
Italian
IVRH.
International Vital Records Handbook

i

i.
island
i. e.
From the Latin id est meaning (that is)
i. q.
From the Latin idem quod meaning (the same as)
i.p.i.
in partibus infidelium ("among the infidels")
ibid.
(Latin, ibidem) meaning "in the same place" or "same reference"
ign.
ignorant
illus.
illustrated
imp.
importation
imp.
imperfect
inc.
incorporated, incomplete
incho.
inchoative
incl.
included, inclusive, including
ind.
indicative
indef.
indefinite
inf.
infant, infancy, infantry, informed
inf.
infinitive
info.
information
inh.
inherited
inhab.
inhabitant
inq.
inquiry
ins.
insert
inst.
(Latin, inst) meaning "of the current month" , institute, institution
int.
intentions; interested; interred; intestate meaning without a will; intention of marriage (a public notice of an upcoming marriage)
intens.
intensive
interj.
interjection
inv.
inventory
inv. orinvt.
inventory
ipm.
(Latin, inquisition post mortem) meaning "an after-death inventory of one's holdings"

j

j.
joined (Quaker)
j.m.
(Latin, jure matris) meaning "in the right of one's mother"
j.u.
(Latin, jure uxoris) meaning "in the right of one's wife"
jas.
joined another society (Quaker)
jd.
jonge dochter/ young daughter (Dutch)
jm.
jonge man / young man (Dutch)
jr.
junior
jud.
judicia, judicious
judic.
judicia, judicious
junr.
junior
jur.
(French, jurat) meaning "The name given to the clause at the foot of an affidavit showing when, where, and before whom the actual oath was sworn or affirmation was made.["

J

J.C.
Jesus Christus ("Jesus Christ")
J.C.D.
Juris Canonici Doctor, Juris Civilis Doctor ("Doctor of Canon Law", "Doctor of Civil Law")
J.D.
Juris Doctor ("Doctor of Law")
J.M.J.
Jesus, Maria, Joseph ("Jesus, Mary, Joseph")
J.U.D.
Juris Utriusque Doctor ("Doctor of Both Laws" Civil and Canon)
J.U.L.
Juris Utriusque Licentiatus ("Licentiate of Both Laws")
JA
Judge Advocate
Jabus
James
Jac.
James
Jap.
Japanese
Jas
James
Jas.
James
Jav.
Javanese
Jer.
Jeremiah
Jer.
Jeremiah
Jn
John
JNH
Journal of Negro History
Jno.
John. Not to be confused with Jon which is an abbreviation for Jonathan or Jno (without a period) which is a proper name in its own right.
Jnthn
Jonathan
Jo.
Joannes ("John")
Joann.
Joannes ("John")
Join.
Joinery
Jon.
Jonathan. Jon, without a period, is also used as a proper name.
Jos.
Joseph
Josh
Josiah
Josh.
Joshua
Josh.
Joshua
JP.
Justice of the Peace
Jud.
Judicium ("Judgment")
Jud.
Judith
Judg.
Judges
Julian Calendar
The Julian calendar began in 45 BC (709 AUC) as a reform of the Roman calendar by Julius Caesar. It was chosen after consultation with the astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria. Evidence indicates it was designed to approximate the tropical year. The original Julian calendar began its year on 1 January though the recognized first day of the year changed a number of times over the centuries to include, 29 August, 30 August, 1 September, 23 September, 25 December, 1 March and 25 March. The Julian calendar remained in use into the 20th century in some countries as a civil calendar, but has been replaced by the Gregorian calendar in nearly all countries. The Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Rite Catholic Churches and Protestant churches have replaced the Julian calendar with the Gregorian calendar; however, the Orthodox Church (with the exception of Romania, Estonia and Finland) still use the Julian calendar for calculating the dates of moveable feasts. Some Orthodox churches have adopted the Revised Julian calendar for the observance of fixed feasts, while other Orthodox churches retain the Julian calendar for all purposes. The Julian calendar is still used by the Berber people of North Africa, and on Mount Athos.
Jur.
Juris ("Of Law")

k

k.
killed, king
kn.
known
knt.
knight

K

K.
Kalendas ("Calends"); or Care, Carus, Cara ("Dear One"), or Carissimusa ("Dearest")
K.
Kings
K.B.M.
Karissimo Bene Merenti ("To the Most Dear and Well-deserving")
Kal.
Kalendae ("Calends")
Kath
Katherine
KB.
Knight of Bath
KC.
Knights of Columbus, Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
KCSG.
Knight Commander of the Order of St Gregory
KENT
Kent
KG.
Knight of the Garter, Knight Companion of the Order of the Garter
KGE.
Knights of the Golden Eagle
KIA.
Killed in Action (military)
KINC
Kincardine
KINR
Kinross
KIPC.
Killed in Plane Crash (military)
KIRK
Kirkcudbright
KLH.
Knight of the Legion of Honour; Knights and Ladies of Honor
KNB.
Killed non-battle (military)
KOSB.
The King's Own Scottish Borderers
KOTM.
Knights of the Maccabees
KOYLI.
The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry
KP.
Order of Knights of Pythias
KSLI.
The King's Shropshire Light Infantry
KT.
Knight of the Order of the Thistle
KUV.
(German, Kranken Unterst

L

L
Lodger
L.
Locus ("Place")
L.
Latin
L.C.D.
Legis Civilis Doctor ("Doctor of Civil Law")
L.H.D.
Litterarum Humaniorum Doctor ("Doctor of Literature")
L.M.
Locus Monumenti ("Place of the Monument")
L.S.
Loco Sigilli ("Place of the Seal")
L.S.
Locus Sepulchri ("Place of the Sepulchre")
La
Laborer
Laic.
Laicus ("Layman")
Lam.
Lamentations
LAN.
Local Area Network a group of computers connected to allow file sharing
LANA
**Lanarkshire** or the County of Lanark Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Lannraig) is a Lieutenancy area, registration county and former local government county in the central Lowlands of Scotland. Glasgow, the neighbouring major city, was formerly included as part of Lanarkshire for administrative purposes and remains part of the registration county. Historically, Lanarkshire was the most populous county in Scotland and, in earlier times, had considerably greater boundaries, including neighbouring Renfrewshire until 1402. In modern times, it was bounded to the north by Stirlingshire and a detached portion of Dunbartonshire, to the northeast by Stirlingshire, West Lothian, to the east by Peeblesshire, to the southeast and south by Dumfriesshire, to the southwest by Dumfriesshire and Ayrshire and to the west by Ayrshire, Renfrewshire and Dunbartonshire. Lanarkshire was historically divided between two administrative areas then, in the mid-18th century, was divided again into three wards: the upper, middle and lower wards with their administrative centres at Lanark, Hamilton and Glasgow respectively and remained this way until the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889. Other significant settlements include East Kilbride, Motherwell, Airdrie, Coatbridge, Blantyre, Cambuslang, Rutherglen and Wishaw. In 1975, the county council was superseded by the Strathclyde region, which itself was superseded by unitary authorities in 1996. Lanarkshire is now covered by the council areas of North Lanarkshire and South Lanarkshire. North Lanarkshire and South Lanarkshire have a joint board for valuation and electoral registration. There is also a joint health board, which does not cover Rutherglen and the surrounding area in South Lanarkshire. Without the northern portion of North Lanarkshire, this is also a Lieutenancy area.
LANC
Lancashire
Lapp.
Lappish
Lat.
Latin
Lat.
Latin
Lau
launderer
Lau
Launderer
Lau.
Laurence
Laud.
Laudes ("Lauds" Breviary)
Lawr.
Lawrence
LBC
Letter Book Copy
LC.
Library of Congress
LCBA.
Loyal Christian Benefit Association
LCCN.
Library of Congress Card Number
LD.
Low Dutch
LDS.
The Chuch of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also known as the Mormons
Lect.
Lectio ("Lesson")
Legit.
Legitime, Legitimus ("Legally", "legitimate")
LEIC
Leicester
Len
Leonard
Leon.
Leonard. Leon, without a period, is also used as a proper name.
Let.
Letitia or Lettice. Both names are pronounced as letisha.
Lett.
Lettish
Lev.
Leviticus
LG.
Low German also known as Low Saxon (Plattdüütsch, Nedderdüütsch, Standard German Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Dutch Nedersaksisch in the wider sense) is any of the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands. The historical sprachraum also includes contemporary northern Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia and a part of southern Lithuania, the German speakers of which were expelled after the post-World War II boundary changes. The former German communities in the Baltic states (see Baltic Germans) did also speak Low German. Moreover, Low German was the Lingua Franca of the Hanseatic League.
LGAR.
Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic
LGr.
Low Greek
Lia.
Licentia ("License")
Lib.
Liber, Libro ("Book", "In the book")
Lic.
Licentia, Licentiatus ("License", "Licentiate")
LINC
Lincoln
Linn.
Linn
Lit.
Literature
Lit., lit.
Literally, literally
Lith.
Lithuanian
Litma.
Legitima ("Lawful")
Litt.
Littera ("Letter")
LL.
LifeLines, a genealogy program for UNIX
LL.
Late Latin
LL.B.
Legum Baccalaureus ("Bachelor of Laws")
LL.D.
Legum Doctor ("Doctor of Laws")
LL.M.
Legum Magister ("Master of Laws")
LLB.
Bachelor of Laws
LLD.
Doctor of Laws
LLM.
Master of Laws
Lo.
Liber, Libro ("Book", "In the book")
LOC.
Location (rarely, Library of Congress)
Loc.
Locus ("Place")
LOCIS.
Library of Congress Information System
LOI.
The Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland
LOND
London (Middlesex)
LOOM.
Loyal Order Of Moose
Lottie
Charlotte
Lov.
Lovanium ("Louvain")
Lovan.
Lovanienses (Theologians of Louvain)
Lre.
Litterae ("Letters")
LS.
(Latin, locus sigilli) meaning "where a seal is placed"
Lte.
Licite ("Lawfully", or "licitly")
Lud.
Ludovicus
LWA.
Lightly Wounded in Action (military)
Lyd
Lydia

l

l.
license, law, lodger
l.c.
Loco citato ("at the place already cited")
l.e.
local elder in a church
l.p.
local preacher
la
laborer
labr.
laborer
lb.
pound
ld.
land, lord
ldr.
leader
leg.
legacy, legatee
li.
lived, living
lib.
library
lic.
license
lieut.
lieutenant
liv.
lived, living
liv. abt.
lived about
lnd.
land
loc. cit.
Loco citato ("at the place already cited")
lpms.
(Latin, legitimatio per matrimonium subsequens) meaning "legitimisation by subsequent matrimony"
lprp.
(Latin, legitimatio per rescriptum principis) meaning "legitimisation by prince's rescript"
lt.
lieutenant
ltd.
limited
ltm.
liberated to marry
lvd.
lived
lvg.
living

M

M
Mother
M-i-l.
mother in law
M.
male; married; month
M.
Maria ("Mary")
M.
Martyr, or Memoria ("Memory") or Monumentum ("Monument")
M.
Middle
M.A.
Magister Artium ("Master of Arts")
M.C.
Missionaries of Charity
M.P.
Monumentum Posuit ("Erected a Monument")
M.R.
Missionarius Rector ("Missionary Rector")
M.S.
Missionaries of La Salette (France)
M.S.C.
Missionarii Sacratissimi Cordis ("Missionaries of the Most Sacred Heart")
MA.
Master of Arts
Maced.
Macedonian
Mach.
Machinery
Mad.
Madam
Mag.
Magister ("Master")
Mag.
Magazine
Magro.
Magistro ("Master" dat. or abl. case)
Maid
Maid
Mal.
Malachi
Malay.
Malayan
Man
Manager
Man.
Man
Mand.
Mandamus ("We command")
Mand. Ap.
Mandatum Apostolicum ("Apostolic Mandate", e.g. for a bishop's consecration)
Manuf.
Manufacturing
Mar.
Maritime
MARC-AMC.
A labeling convention for on-line library catalogs
Margt
Margaret
Margy
Margery
Marn
Marmaduke
Mart.
Martyr, Martyres ("Martyr", "Martyrs" Breviary)
Mat
Matron
Mat.
Matutinum ("Matins" Breviary)
Math.
Mathematics, Mathematical
Math.
Matthias
Matr.
Matrimonum ("Marriage")
Matt.
Matthew
Matt.
Matthew
Matth.
Matthew
Mau.
Maurice
MC.
Member of Council (King's); Member of Congress
MCA
Microfilm Corporation of America
MCC
Microfilm Card Catalog
MCD
Municipal Civil District, minor civil division (Census Soundex)
MD
Doctor of Medicine, Middle Dutch
MDSX
Middlesex (London)
ME.
Middle English
Mech.
Mechanic
Med.
Medicine
MERI
Merioneth
Metal.
Metallurgy
Metaph.
Metaphysics
Meteor.
Meteorolgy
Mex. S.C.
Mexican Survivors' Certificates
Mex. S.O.
Mexcian Survivorr's Originals
Mex. W.C.
Mexican Widows' Certificate
MG
Minister of the Gospel
Mgr.
Monsignor ("My Lord")
Mgt
Margaret
MH.
meeting house
MHG
Middle High German. It is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. It is preceded by Old High German and followed by Early New High German. In some uses, the term covers a longer period, going up to 1500.
MHG.
Middle High German
MI.
Monumental (or Memorial) Inscription
MIA
Missing in Action (military)
Mic.
Michael
Mich.
Michael
Micros.
Microscopy
Mil.
Military
Mild
Mildred
Mild.
Mildred
Mill.
Millicent
Min.
Mineralogy
Mir.
Misericorditer ("Mercifully")
Mir. for Mag.
Mirror for Magistrates
Miraone.
Miseratione ("Pity" abl. case)
Miss.
Missa ("Mass" Breviary); Missionarius ("Missionary")
Miss. Apost.
Missionarius Apostolicus ("Missionary Apostolic")
MIY.
in Census, married in that year
ML
mother-in-law
ML
Mother-in-law
MLG
Middle Low German, a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and is the ancestor of modern Low German. It served as the international lingua franca of the Hanseatic League. It was spoken from about 1100 to 1600.
MLG.
Middle Low German, a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and is the ancestor of modern Low German. It served as the international lingua franca of the Hanseatic League. It was spoken from about 1100 to 1600.
MLOT
**Midlothian** ( /mɪdˈloʊðiən/; Scots: Midlowden, Scottish Gaelic: Meadhan Lodainn) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and a lieutenancy area. It borders the Scottish Borders, East Lothian and the City of Edinburgh council areas. The County of Midlothian used for local government purposes formerly encompassed the city of Edinburgh, and within these borders still serves as a registration county. Midlothian Council area was created in 1996, under the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994, with the boundaries of the Midlothian district of the Lothian region. The district had been created in 1975, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, and it consisted of the local government county of Midlothian, minus the burgh of Musselburgh and Calder, Cramond, Currie and Inveresk areas.
MLW
Military Land Warrant
MM
Monthly Meeting of Society of Friends being a logcal congregation of a religious group also known as Quakers
MM.
Martyr, Martyres ("Martyr", "Martyrs" Breviary)
MM.
Martyres ("Martyrs")
MNTG
**Montgomery** (Welsh: Trefaldwyn; meaning "The Town of Baldwin") is a historic county town in Mid Wales that lies just three miles from the Wales-England border in the Welsh Marches. It is best known for its castle, Montgomery Castle, begun in 1223, and its parish church, begun in 1227. However its origins go back much further, as seen by the Iron age hill fort on the edge of the town. Other attractions include The Old Bell Museum, the Offa's Dyke Path, the Robber's Grave and the town wall, as well as several impressive buildings. Even though the town has long since lost its trappings of power as a county town, there is still a bustling small commercial centre and continues to attract increasing numbers of tourists. The town was established around a Norman stone castle on a crag. The castle had been built in the early 13th century to control an important ford over the nearby River Severn and replaced an earlier motte and bailey fortification at Hendoman, two miles away. An important supporter of King William I (the Conqueror), Roger de Montgomery, originally from Montgomery in the Pays d'Auge in Normandy, was given this part of the Welsh Marches by William and his name was given to the town surrounding the castle. Montgomery was sacked at the beginning of the 15th century by the Welsh Prince Owain Glyndŵr (Owen Glendower). At this time, the castle and surrounding estates were held by the Mortimer family (the hereditary Earls of March) but they came into royal hands when the last Earl of March died in 1425. In 1485, King Richard III was defeated at the Battle of Bosworth and the Royal Estates, including Montgomery and its castle, passed into the hands of the new King, Henry VII, the first Tudor king, and a Welshman. The castle was then given to another powerful Welsh family, the Herberts, in 1541. During the Civil War, the castle was captured by Parliamentary forces and subsequently slighted (damaged) to remove its military threat. As a county town, Montgomery prospered, and the consequent buildings give the small town its current character. In 1923 the Montgomeryshire County War Memorial was completed to commemorate fallen soldiers from Montgomeryshire County. The Memorial resides 0.75 miles to the Southwest of Montgomery, on a hill overlooking the countryside. Montgomery was the birth place of famous poet George Herbert in 1593.
Moham.
Mohammedan
MOLLUS.
Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States
MONM
**Monmouthshire** (pronounced /ˈmɒnməθʃər/ or /ˈmɒnməθʃɪər/), also known as the County of Monmouth (pronounced /ˈmɒnməθ/; Welsh: Sir Fynwy), is one of thirteen ancient counties of Wales and a former administrative county. It corresponds approximately to the present principal areas of Monmouthshire, Blaenau Gwent, Torfaen, and Newport and those parts of Caerphilly and Cardiff east of the Rhymney River. The eastern part of the county is mainly agricultural, while the western valleys had rich mineral resources. This led to the area becoming highly industrialised with coal mining and iron working being major employers from the 18th century to the late 20th century. Monmouthshire's Welsh status was ambiguous between the 16th and 20th centuries, with it considered by some to be part of England during this time. The "county or shire of Monmouth" was formed from parts of the Welsh Marches by the Laws in Wales Act 1535. According to the Act the shire consisted of all Honours, Lordships, Castles, Manors, Lands, Tenements and Hereditaments, lying or being within the Compass or Precinct of the following Lordships, Townships, Parishes, Commotes and Cantrefs... in the Country of Wales: Monmouth • Chepstow • Matherne (Mathern) • Llanvihangel (Llanfihangel Rogiet) • Magour (Magor) • Goldcliffe (Goldcliff) • Newport • Wentlooge • Llanwerne (Llanwern) • Caerlion (Caerleon) • Usk • Treleck (Trellech) • Tintern • Skenfrith • Grosmont • Witecastle (White Castle) • Raglan • Calicote (Caldicot) • Biston (Bishton) • Abergavenny • Penrose (Penrhos) • Grenefield (Maesglas) • Maghen (Machen) • Hochuyslade (possessions of Llanthony Priory) The Act also designated Monmouth as the "Head and Shire town of the said county or shire of Monmouth", and ordered that the Sheriff's county or shire court be held alternately in Monmouth and Newport. The historic boundaries are the River Wye on the east, dividing it from Gloucestershire and the Rhymney River to the west dividing it from Glamorganshire, with the Bristol Channel to the south. The boundaries with Herefordshire to the northeast and Brecknockshire to the north were less well-defined. The parish of Welsh Bicknor, was an exclave of Monmouthshire, sandwiched between Gloucestershire and Herefordshire. The area was considered part of Monmouthshire until it was made part of Herefordshire "for all purposes" by the Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844, while the Herefordshire hamlet of Fwthog adjoining the Honddu Valley remained an exclave within Monmouthshire until 1891. The county was divided into six hundreds in 1542: Abergavenny • Caldicot • Raglan • Skenfrith • Usk • Wentloog The county contained the three boroughs of Monmouth, Newport and Usk. Monmouth and Newport were reformed as municipal boroughs with elected town councils by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. Usk continued as an unreformed borough until its final abolition in 1886. New forms of local government were established in the urban areas of the county with the setting of local boards under the Public Health Act 1848 and Local Government Act 1858. The Public Health Act 1875 divided the rural areas into rural sanitary districts. An administrative county of Monmouthshire, governed by an elected county council, was formed in 1889 under the terms of the Local Government Act 1888. The administrative county had similar boundaries, but included the Beaufort, Dukestown, Llechryd and Rassau areas of south Breconshire. The county council was based in Newport, rather than the historic county town of Monmouth. In 1891 the borough of Newport achieved county borough status and therefore left the administrative county, although the Shire Hall continued to be based there. In the same year the parish of Fwthog was transferred to both the administrative and geographic county of Monmouthshire. Under the Local Government Act 1894 Monmouthshire was divided into urban and rural districts, based on existing sanitary districts. In 1899 Abergavenny was incorporated as a borough. Two further urban districts were formed, Mynyddislwyn in 1903, and Bedwas and Machen in 1912. The County of Monmouth Review Order 1935 revised the number and boundaries of the urban and rural districts in the administrative county. A new Cwmbran urban district was formed by the abolition of Llanfrechfa Upper and Llantarnam UDs, Abersychan and Panteg UDs were absorbed by Pontypool urban district, and Magor and St Mellons RD was formed by a merger of two rural districts. The last major boundary change to affect the administrative and geographic county was in 1938 when the parish of Rumney was removed to be included in the county borough of Cardiff, and therefore the geographic county of Glamorgan. The administrative county of Monmouthshire and county borough of Newport were abolished in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. Most of the area formed the new county of Gwent, with parts going to the new Rhymney Valley district of Mid Glamorgan and Cardiff district of South Glamorgan. Successor districts of Gwent were Blaenau Gwent, Islwyn, Monmouth, Newport and Torfaen. The name "Monmouthshire" was revived for one of the principal areas created on further local government reorganisation in 1996. The principal area covers only part of the historic county, which also includes the principal areas of Newport, Torfaen, most of Blaenau Gwent, and parts of Caerphilly and Cardiff. The preserved county of Gwent, which still exists for some ceremonial purposes, is similar in extent to historic Monmouthshire with the addition of the Rhymney Valley area.
Mons.
Monsignor ("My Lord")
MOPH.
Military Order of the Purple Heart
MORA
Moray
MOWW.
Military Order of World Wars
Mozley & W.
Mozley & Whiteley
MQ
Mayflower Quarterly
Mr.
Mister
Mrimonium.
Matrimonium ("Matrimony")
Mrs.
Mistress
MRT.
Merenti ("To the Deserving")
Msgr.
Monsignor ("My Lord")
Mu.
mulatto, person with one Caucasian and one Negro parent
Mus.
Music
MWA.
Modern Woodmen of America
My
Mary
Myst.
Mysteries
Myth.
Mythology

m

m-in-l
mother-in-law
m., masc.
masculine
m.bn.
marriage banns
m.h.
meeting house
m.i.
monument inscription
m.o.
mustered out
m.t.v.
mutatur terminatio versiculi ("the termination of the little verse is changed" Breviary)
m/1
married first
m/2
married second
m/3
married third
m/4
married fourth
m/5
married fifth
mag.
magistrate
maj.
major
mak.
making
mat.
maternal
mbr.
member
mbrp.
membership
mcd.
married contrary to Discipline (Quaker)
md.
married
mem.
member, membership, memorials, memoir
ment.
mentioned
messrs.
plural of mister
mgr.
milligrams
mil
military
milit.
military
min.
minister
mnth.
month
mo.
mother, month
mors.
death, corpse
mos.
months; married out of society (Quaker)
mou.
married out of unity (Quaker)
mov.
moved
ms.
manuscript
mss.
manuscripts
mt.
married to
mtg.
meeting, mortgage
mvd.
moved
my/d
my daughter

N

N
Nephew
N.
Nonas ("Nones"), or Numero ("Number")
N.
New
N. Brit. Rev.
North British Review
N. D.
Nostra Domina, Notre Dame ("Our Lady")
N.B.
(Latin, note bene) meaning "note well" or
N.E.
New England, North Eeast
N.H.
New Hampshire
N.S.
New Style
N.T.
Novum Testamentum ("New Testament")
N.W.
North West
NA
The United States National Archives in Washington, D.C., Native American
NAIR
Nairn
NARA
The United States National Archives and Records Administration
NARS
National Archives and Record Service
NAT.
North African Theater (military)
Nat. Hist.
Natural History
Nat. ord.
Natural order
NATF.
National Archives Trust Fund
Nath.
Nathaniel
Nativ. D.N.J.C.
Nativitas Domini Nostri Jesu Christi ("Nativity of Our Lord Jesus Christ")
NATO.
North African Theater of Operations (military, WW2)
Naut.
Nautical
Nav.
Navy
Navig.
Navigation
NCWA.
National Civil War Association (USA)
NEH
National Endowment for the Humanities
Neh.
Nehemiah
Neh.
Nehemiah
NEHGR
New England Historic Genealogical Register published by the NEHGS
NEHGS
New England Historic Genealogical Society
New Am. Cyc.
New American Cyclopedia
New Month. Mag.
New Monthly Magazine
NF.
New French
NFMP.
National Fraternity of Military Pilots
NGC.
National Genealogical Conference
NGr.
Mew Greek
NGS
National Genealogical Society, National Geographical Society
NGS.
National Geographical Society
NGS/CIG.
A computer bulletin board system operated by the National Genealogical Society's Computer Interest Group strictly about genealogy
NGSQ.
National Genealogical Society Quarterly
NHAM
**Northamptonshire** ( /nɔrˈθæmptənʃər/ or /nɔrθˈhæmptənʃɪər/; archaically, the County of Northampton; abbreviated Northants. or N/hants) is a landlocked county in the English East Midlands, with a population of 629,676 as at the 2001 census. It has boundaries with the ceremonial counties of Warwickshire to the west, Leicestershire and Rutland to the north, Cambridgeshire to the east, Bedfordshire to the south-east, Buckinghamshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the south-west, and Lincolnshire to the north-east – England's shortest county boundary at 19 meters (21 yd). The county town is Northampton. Much of Northamptonshire’s countryside appears to have remained somewhat intractable with regards to early human occupation, resulting in an apparently sparse population and relatively few finds from the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods. In about 500 BC the Iron Age was introduced into the area by a continental people in the form of the Hallstatt culture, and over the next century a series of hill-forts were constructed at Arbury Camp, Rainsborough camp, Borough Hill, Castle Dykes, Guilsborough, Irthlingborough, and most notably of all, Hunsbury Hill. There are two more possible hill-forts at Arbury Hill (Badby) and Thenford. In the 1st century BC, most of what later became Northamptonshire became part of the territory of the Catuvellauni, a Belgic tribe, the Northamptonshire area forming their most northerly possession. The Catuvellauni were in turn conquered by the Romans in 43 AD. The Roman road of Watling Street passed through the county, and an important Roman settlement, Lactodorum, stood on the site of modern-day Towcester. There were other Roman settlements at Northampton, Kettering and along the Nene Valley near Raunds. A large fort was built at Longthorpe. After the Romans left, the area eventually became part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia, and Northampton functioned as an administrative centre. The Mercians converted to Christianity in 654 AD with the death of the pagan king Penda. From about 889 the area was conquered by the Danes (as at one point was almost all of England except for Athelney marsh in Somerset) and became part of the Danelaw - with Watling Street serving as the boundary - until being recaptured by the English under the Wessex king Edward the Elder, son of Alfred the Great, in 917. Northamptonshire was conquered again in 940, this time by the Vikings of York, who devastated the area, only for the county to be retaken by the English in 942. Consequently, it is one of the few counties in England to have both Saxon and Danish town-names and settlements. The county was first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1011), as Hamtunscire: the scire (shire) of Hamtun (the homestead). The "North" was added to distinguish Northampton from the other important Hamtun further south: Southampton. Rockingham Castle was built for William the Conqueror and was used as a Royal fortress until Elizabethan times. The now-ruined Fotheringhay Castle was used to imprison Mary, Queen of Scots, before her execution. In 1460, during the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of Northampton took place and King Henry VI was captured. John Speed's 17th century map of NorthamptonshireGeorge Washington, the first President of the United States of America, was born into the Washington family who had migrated to America from Northamptonshire in 1656. George Washington's great-great-great-great-great grandfather, Lawrence Washington, was Mayor of Northampton on several occasions and it was he who bought Sulgrave Manor from Henry VIII in 1539. It was George Washington's great-grandfather, John Washington, who emigrated in 1656 from Northants to Virginia. Before Washington's ancestors moved to Sulgrave, they lived in Warton, Lancashire. During the English Civil War, Northamptonshire strongly supported the Parliamentarian cause, and the Royalist forces suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Naseby in 1645 in the north of the county. King Charles I was imprisoned at Holdenby House in 1647. In 1823 Northamptonshire was said to "[enjoy] a very pure and wholesome air" because of its dryness and distance from the sea. Its livestock were celebrated: "Horned cattle, and other animals, are fed to extraordinary sizes: and many horses of the large black breed are reared." Nine years later, the county was described as "a county enjoying the reputation of being one of the healthiest and pleasantest parts of England" although the towns were "of small importance" with the exceptions of Peterborough and Northampton. In summer, the county hosted "a great number of wealthy families... country seats and villas are to be seen at every step." Northamptonshire is still referred to as the county of "spires and squires" because of the numbers of stately homes and ancient churches. In the 18th and 19th centuries, parts of Northamptonshire and the surrounding area became industrialised. The local specialisation was shoemaking and the leather industry and by the end of the 19th century it was almost definitively the boot and shoe making capital of the world.[citation needed] In the north of the county a large ironstone quarrying industry developed from 1850. During the 1930s, the town of Corby was established as a major centre of the steel industry. Much of Northamptonshire nevertheless remains largely rural. Northamptonshire, like most English counties, is divided into a number of local authorities. The seven borough/district councils cover 15 towns and hundreds of villages. The county has a two-tier structure of local government and an elected county council based in Northampton, and is also divided into seven districts each with their own district or borough councils. Northampton itself is the most populous urban district in England not to be administered as a unitary authority (even though several smaller districts are unitary). During the 1990s local government reform, Northampton Borough Council petitioned strongly for unitary status, which led to fractured relations with the County Council. Before 1974, the Soke of Peterborough was considered geographically part of Northamptonshire, although it had had a separate county council since the late 19th Century and separate Quarter Sessions courts before then. Now part of Cambridgeshire, the city of Peterborough became a unitary authority in 1998, but it continues to form part of that county for ceremonial purposes.
NHeb.
New Hebrew
NHPRC
National Historical Publications and Records Commission
Ni
niece
Ni
Niece
Nic.
Nicholas
Nich.
Nicholas
Nigr.
Niger ("Black" Breviary)
Nl
Nephew-in-law
NL.
New Latin
NLW.
National Library of Wales
NN.
(Latin, nomen nescio) meaning "not named" or "name unknown"
NN.
Nostris ("To Our" with a plural) or Numeri ("Numbers")
No.
Nobis ("to us", "for us")
NOB.
Naval Order of Battle
Nob.
Nobilis, Nobiles ("Noble", "Nobles")
Noct.
Nocturnum ("Nocturn")
NOK.
Next of Kin (military)
Non.
Nonae ("Nones")
NORF
Norfolk
Norm. F.
Norman French
North Am. Rev.
North American Review
Norw.
Norwegian
Nostr.
Noster, nostri ("Our", "of our")
Not.
Notitia ("Knowledge")
NOTT
Nottingham
Nov.
November
NP
Notary Public
NR.
not reported (Census Soundex)
NS
New Style (Gregorian) calendar also known as the "Western calendar", or "Christian calendar". It is currently the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February 1582. The Gregorian claendar recognizes January 1 as the first day of the year; Nova Scotia
NSCDA
National Society of the Colonial Dames of America
NSDAR
National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution
NSSDP.
National Society Sons and Daughters of the Pilgrims
Ntri.
Nostri ("Of our")
Nu
nurse
Nu
Nurse
NUCMC
National Union Catalog of Manuscript Colletions
Nultus.
Nullatenus ("Nowise")
Num.
Numbers
Numis.
Numismatics
Nup.
Nuptiae ("Nuptials")
NW. Terr.
North West Territory
NWC
Navy Widow's Certificate

n

n.
nephew, name, north
n.d.
no date
n.p.
no place
n.pub.
no publisher given
n.x.n.
no christian name
n/a.
not available, not applicable, unknown
na.
naturalized, not applicable, not attending meeting (Quaker)
nam.
named
nbr.
neighbor
nd.
no date, not dated
neg att.
neglecting attendance (Quaker)
neph-i-l
nephew-in-law
neph.
nephew
neut.
neuter
nfi
no further information
nfk
nothing further known
nfr.
no further record
ng.
not given
nm.
name, never married
nmed.
named
nmn.
no middle name
nom.
nominative
not.
noted
np.
no page (or publisher) given
nunc.
nuncupative meaning a will or testament declared orally as opposed to in writing especially by a mortally wounded soldier or sailor

O

O
Officer
O.
Hora ("Hour"), Obiit ("Died")
O.
Old
O. Camald.
Ordo Camaldulensium (Camaldolese)
O. Cart.
Ordo Cartusiensis (Carthusians)
O. Cist.
Ordo Cisterciensium (Cistercians)
O. Merced.
Ordo Beatae Mariae Virginis de Redemptione Captivorum (Mercedarians, Nolaschi)
O. Trinit.
Ordo Sanctissimae Trinitatis (Trinitarians)
O.B.
Order Book
O.C.
Ordo C(h)aritatis (Fathers of the Order of Charity)
O.C.C.
Ordo Carmelitarum Calceatorum (Carmelites)
O.C.D.
Ordo Carmelitarum Discalceatorum (Discalced, or Barefoot, Carmelites)
O.C.R.
Ordo Reformatorum Cisterciensium (Cistercians, Trappists)
O.E.
Old England, Old English
O.F.M.
Ordo Fratrum Minorum (Observant Franciscans)
O.F.M. Cap.
Ordo Minorum Cappucinorum (Capuchins)
O.M.
Ordo [Fratrum] Minimorum (Minims of St. Francis of Paola)
O.M. Cap.
Ordo Minorum Cappucinorum (Capuchins)
O.M.C.
Ordo Minorum Cappucinorum (Capuchins)
O.M.I.
Oblati Mariae Immaculatae (Oblate Fathers of Mary Immaculate)
O.P.
Ordo Praedicatorum (Dominicans)
O.S.
Old Style, as in Old Style Date
O.S.
Old Style
O.S.A.
Ordo [Eremitarum] Sancti Augustini (Augustinians)
O.S.B.
Ordo Sancti Benedicti (Benedictines)
O.S.C.
Oblati Sancti Caroli (Oblate Fathers of St. Charles)
O.S.F.C.
Ordinis Sancti Francisci Capuccini (Franciscan Capuchins)
O.S.F.S.
Oblati Sancti Francisci Salesii (Oblate Fathers of St. Francis of Sales)
O.S.H.
Ordo [Eremitarum] Sancti Hieronymi (Hieronymites)
O.S.M.
Ordo Servorum Mariae (Servites)
O.SS.C.
Oblati Sacratissimi Cordis ("Oblate Fathers of the Sacred Heart")
O.T.
Old Testament
OA.
Order of the Arrow (Boy Scouts)
Ob.
Obiit ("Died")
Ob.
Obadiah
OB. IN XTO.
Obiit In Christo ("Died In Christ")
OBE.
Order of the British Empire
OBLI.
Ox and Bucks Light Infantry
Obsoles.
Obsolescent
OC.
Order of Canada
OCelt.
Old Celtic
OCLC.
Online Computer Library Center
Oct.
Octava ("Octave" Breviary)
OD.
Old Dutch
ODan.
Old Danish
OE.
Old English
OES.
Order of the Eastern Star
OF.
Old French
OFelm.
Old Flemish
OFries.
Old Frisian (Old Friesic)
Ofris.
Old Frisian (Old Friesic)
OGael.
Old Gaelic
OGr.
Old Greek
OHC.
Order of the Holy Cross
OHG.
Old High German
OIcel.
Old Icelandic
OIr
Old Irish
OIt.
Old Italian
OL.
Old Latin
Ol.
Oliver
OLG.
Old Low German
Olr.
Old Irish
OLUC.
OnLine Union Catalog
OM
Organized Militia
OM.
Ordained Minister; Order of Merit
OMM.
Order of Military Merit
Omn.
Omnes, Omnibus ("All", "to all")
OMS.
Omnes ("All")
ON.
Old Norse
OP.
Order of Preachers (Roman Catholicism; Dominican)
OP.
Optimus (Excellent, or Supremely Good)
Op. Cit.
Opere Citato ("In the work cited")
OPAC
Online Public Access Catalogs
OPCS
Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (British)
OPer.
Old Persian
OPg.
Old Portuguese
OPol.
Old Polish
OPR
Old Parochial Records (for Scotland, kept in the Scottish Registry office)
Opt.
Optics
Or.
Oratio ("Prayer" Breviary)
Or. Orat.
Orator ("Petitioner"), Oratorium ("Oratory")
Ord.
Ordo, Ordinatio, Ordinarius ("Order", "Ordination", "Ordinary")
Ord. Fratr. Praed.
Ordo Praedicatorum (Dominicans)
Ord. Praem.
Ordo Praemonstratensium (Premonstratensians, Norbertines)
Ordinaoni.
Ordinationi ("Ordination" dat. case)
Ordio.
Ordinario ("Ordinary" dat. or abl. case)
ORKN
Orkney
Ornith.
Ornithology
OS
Old Style, Old Style or "Julian" calendar. The Julian calendar began in 45 BC (709 AUC) as a reform of the Roman calendar by Julius Caesar. It was chosen after consultation with the astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria. Evidence indicates it was designed to approximate the tropical year. The original Julian calendar began its year on 1 January though the recognized first day of the year changed a number of times over the centuries to include, 29 August, 30 August, 1 September, 23 September, 25 December, 1 March and 25 March.
OS.
Old Saxon
OSA.
Order of St. Anne; Ordinis Sancti Augustini (of the order of St. Augustine)
OSB.
Order of St. Benedict
OSIA.
Order of the Sons of Italy in America
OSL.
Order of St. Luke the Physician
OSlav.
Old Slavic
OSM.
Order of Servants of Mary
OSp.
Old Spanish
OSSB.
Order of the Star Spangled Banner
OUAM.
Order of United American Mechanics
Oxf. Gloss.
Oxford Glossary of Architecture
OXFO
Oxford
Oxon.
Oxonium, Oxonienses ("Oxford", "Theologians or Scholars of Oxford")

o

o.
oath, officer, old
o.c.
only child
o.p.
out of print
o.s.p.
died without offspring
o.t.p.
of this parish (British records)
o/s.
opposite side, as in grave recording
ob c
(Latin, obiit caelebs) meaning "died a bachelor"
ob.
(Latin, obiit) meaning "died" or (Latin obdormio) which translates as "fell asleep" but often also means "died"
obit.
obituary, died
obs.
obsolete
occ.
occupation
off.
official
offic.
official
oft.
often
ord.
ordained, ordinance, order, ordinary
org.
organization
orig.
origin, original
orig.
original, originally
osp.
(Latin, obiit sine prole) meaning "died without issue"
ou.
out of unity (Quaker)

P

P
Patient
P.
Pater, Pere ("Father")
P.
Pax ("Peace"), or Pius ("Dutiful"), or Ponendum ("To be Placed"), or Pridie ("The Day Before"), or Plus ("More")
P. CONS.
Post Consulatum ("After the Consulate")
P. Cyc.
Penny Cyclopedia
P. Plowman
Piers Plowman
P.C.
Poni Curavit ("Caused to be Placed"), Post Consulatum ("After the Consulate")
P.I.
Poni Jussit ("Ordered to be Placed")
P.K.
Pridie Kalendas ("The day before the Calends")
P.M.
(Latin, post meridiem) meaning "after mid day", afternoon, Post Mortem, after death, Police Magistrate
P.M.
Plus Minus ("More or Less"), or Piae Memoriae ("Of Pious Memory"), or Post Mortem ("After Death")
P.M.
(Latin Post Meridiem) "Post" translates to "Post" which means "after". Meridiem translates to "meridian" which refers to an imaginary line running from the southern horizon, passing directly overhead then ending at the northern horizon thus dividing the sky in to two halves. When the sun is in the western half of the sky it was be said to be "Post Meridiem", or "after the meridian", or in mordern terms "after noon".
P.O.
Post Office
P.O.
Pretres de l'Oratoire, Presbyteri Oratorii (Oratorians)
P.P.
Parochus ("Parish Priest" used mostly in Ireland)
P.P.P.
Propria Pecunia Posuit ("Erected at his own expense")
P.R.
Permanens Rector ("Permanent Rector")
P.S.
Patriotic Service
P.S.M.
Pia Societas Missionum (Fathers of the Pious Society of Missions, Pallottini)
P.S.S.
Presbyteri Sancti Sulpicii, Pretres de S. Sulpice (Sulpicians)
P.T.C.S.
Pax Tibi Cum Sanctis ("Peace to Thee With the Saints")
Pa
partner
Pa
Partner
Pa.
papers submitted as in naturalization papers
Pa.
Papa ("Pope"); Pater ("Father")
PAC.
Public Access Catalog same as OPAC.
Pact.
Pactum ("Agreement")
PAF.
Personal Ancestry File computer program from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Paint.
Painting
Paleon.
Paleontology
Pasch.
Pascha ("Easter" Breviary)
Pat.
Patrick
Pathol.
Pathology
Patr.
Patriarcha ("Patriarch")
PBA.
Patrolman's Benevolent Association
Pbr.
Presbyter ("Priest")
PCC.
Prerogative Court of Canterbury (English wills)
PCX.
A format to hold image information on a computer disk file
PCY.
Prerogative Court of York (English wills)
PE
Presiding Elder
PEEB
Peebles
PEMB
Pembroke
Pen.
Penelope
Penia.
Poenitentia ("Penance", or "repentance")
Peniaria.
Poenitentiaria ("Penitentiary"; i.e. Bureau of the Apostolic Penitentiary)
Pent.
Pentecostes ("Pentecost" Breviary)
Per.
Persian
Persp.
Perspective
PERT
**Perth and Kinross** (Peairt agus Ceann Rois in Gaelic) is one of 32 council areas in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy Area. It borders onto the Aberdeenshire, Angus, Dundee City, Fife, Clackmannanshire, Stirling, Argyll and Bute and Highland council areas. Perth is the administrative centre. It corresponds broadly, but not exactly, with the former counties of Perthshire and Kinross-shire. Perthshire and Kinross-shire had a joint county council from 1929 until 1975. The area was created a single district in 1975, in the Tayside region, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, and then reconstituted as a unitary authority (with a minor boundary adjustment) in 1996, by the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994.
Pert.
Pertaining
Peruv.
Peruvian
Pet.
Peter
Pet.
Peter
Pg.
Portuguese
Ph
Physician
PH.
The Order of Patrons Of Husbandry (Grange)
Ph. B.
Philosophiae Baccalaureus ("Bachelor of Philosophy")
Ph. M.
Philosophiae Magister ("Master of Philosophy")
Ph.D.
Philosophiae Doctor ("Doctor of Philosophy")
Pharm.
Pharmacy, Pharmacop
PhD.
Doctor of Philosophy
Phil.
Philosophia ("Philosophy")
Phil.
Phillipians
Phil.
Philip or Phillip
Philad.
Philadelphia
Philem.
Philemon
Philol.
Philology
Philos.
Philosophy
Phin.
Phinias
Phon.
Phonetics
Photog.
Photography
Photom.
Photometry
Phren.
Phrenology
Phyl.
Phillis
Phys.
Physics
Phys. Sci.
Physical Science
Physiol.
Physiology
PI
Preliminary Inventories
PILI.
(Filby's) Passenger Lists and Immigration Index
PJP
Probate Judge of the Peace
PLAV.
Polish Legion of American Veterans
PLB
Poor Law Board
PM.
preparative meeting (Quaker)
Pntium.
Praesentium ("Of those present" or "Of this present writing")
POA
Power of Attorney
POE
Port of Entry
Poe.
Posse ("To be able" or "The ability to do a thing")
Poenit.
Poenitentia ("Penance")
Poenit. Ap.
Poenitentiaria Apostolica ("Office of the Apostolic Penitentiary")
Poet.
Poetry, Poetical
Pol.
Polish
Pol. Econ.
Political Economy
Polit. Econ.
Political Economy
Pont.
Pontificatus ("Pontificate")
Pont. Max.
Pontifex Maximus ("Supreme Pontiff")
Pontus.
Pontificatus ("Pontificate")
Pop. Sci. Monthly
Polular Science Monthly
Por
porter
Por
Porter
POSA.
Patriotic Sons of America
Poss.
Possessor, Possessio ("Possessor", "Possession")
PP.
Papa ("Pope")
PP.
Papa ("Pope"); Pontificum ("Of the popes")
PP.
Praepositus ("Placed over")
PP. AA.
Patres Amplissimi ("Cardinals")
PPA
per power of Attorney
Pr
Prisoner
Pr.
Pater ("Father")
Pr.
Proven
PR.K.
Pridie Kalendas ("The Day Before the Calends")
PR.N.
Pridie Nonas ("The Day Before the Nones")
Praef.
Praefatio ("Preface" of the Mass Breviary)
PRB.
Presbyter ("Priest")
Pref.
Preface
Presbit.
Presbyter, Priest
Pri
Principal
Print.
Printing
Pris.
Priscilla
Prisc.
Priscilla
PRO.
Public Records Office (British)
Prof.
Professus, Professio, Professor ("Professed", "Profession", "Professor")
PRONI.
Public Records Office of Northern Ireland
Prop. Fid.
Propaganda Fide (Congregation of the Propaganda, Rome)
Propr.
Proprium ("Proper" Breviary)
Pror.
Procurator
Pros.
Prosody
Prov.
Provisio, Provisum ("Provision", "Provided")
Pru.
Prudence
Prv
Private
Ps.
Psalmus ("Psalm")
Ps., Psa.
Psalms
Ptur.
Praefertur ("Is preferred" or "Is brought forward")
Ptus.
Praefatus ("Aforesaid")
Pu
pupil
Pu
Pupil
Pub.
Publicus, Publice ("Public", "Publicly")
Publ.
Publicus, Publice ("Public", "Publicly")
Purg. Can.
Purgatio Canonica ("Canonical Disculpation")
Pyro.-elect.
Pyro-electricity
PZ.
Pie Zeses ("May you Live Piously" Greek)

p

p.
(Latin, post) meaning "after, behind, afterwards, presently or shortly", page
p.
participle, page
p. a.
participial adjective
p.a.
power of attorney
p.p.
past participle
p.pr., p.ple.
present participle
p.r.
parish record
p.v.
prorare vexilla, patriotically
pam.
pamphlet
par.
parish, parent, parents
pass.
passive
pat.
patent, patented, paternal
pchd.
purchased
peo.
people
perh.
perhaps
perh.
perhaps
pers.
person
petitn.
petition
petn.
petition
petr.
petitioner
pg.
page
pion.
pioneer
pl.
plural
plt.
plantiff
pp.
pages
pp.
pages
pr.
proved, probated, prisoner, prince, princess
prc.
produced a certificate (Quaker)
preced.
preceding
prep.
preposition
pres.
present
pret.
preterit
prin.
principally
priv.
privative
prob.
probable, probably
prob.
probably
pron.
Pronunciation, pronounced, pronoun
prop.
property
prop.
properly
propr.
proprietor(s)
prov.
provincial
provis.
provision
prsh.
parish
pt.
point, port, petition, pint
ptf.
plaintiff
pub.
public, published, publisher, publication
pvt.
private
pymt.
payment

Q

Q.
Queen
Q.
Quiescit ("He Rests")
Q.B.AN.
Qui Bixit (for Vixit) Annos ("Who lived ... years")
Q.I.P.
Quiescat In Pace ("May he or she Rest in Peace")
Q.V.
Qui Vixit ("Who Lived")
Qd.
Quod ("Because", "That" or "Which")
Qkr.
Quaker
QM.
quarter master (military), quarterly meeting (Quaker)
Qmlbt.
Quomodolibet ("In any manner whatsoever")
QOCH.
Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders
Qtnus.
Quatenus ("Insofar as")
Quadrag.
Quadragesima ("Lent", also the "Fortieth day" before Easter Breviary)
Quart. Rev.
Quarterly Review
Qui.
Quiescit ("He Rests")
Quinquag.
Quinquagesima (The "Fiftieth day" before Easter

q

q. v.
From the Latin quod vide meaning (which see)
q.s.
(Latin, quod suivre) meaning "which follows"
q.v.
(Latin, quod vide) meaning "which see"
q.y.
query

R

R
Roomer
R.
Range, Rabbi, River, Road
R.
Roma (Rome)
R.
Requiescit ("He Rests"), or Refrigerio ("In Refreshment" or "in a place of Refreshment")
R.
Rare
R. C.
Roman Catholic
R. C. Ch.
Roman Catholic Church
R. of Brunne
Robert of Brunne
R. of Gl.
Robert of Gloucester
R. P.
Reverendus Pater, Reverend Pere ("Reverend Father")
R.C.
Roman Catholic
R.D.
Rural Dean
R.G.
Record Group (used in archives)
R.I.P.
Requiescat In Pace ("May he or she rest in peace")
Rach.
Rachel
RADN
Radnor
Ray.
Raymond
RCA.
Railway Carmen of America
RCJ.
Rogationists Cordis Jesu (formal name for Rogationists a Roman Catholic Order of Men)
RD
release of dower rights
Rds.
records
Reb.
Rebecca
Reg.
Regionis ("Of the Region")
Reg.
Reginald
Reg. Gen.
Registrar General
Relione.
Religione ("Religion" or "Religious Order" abl. case)
RENF
**Renfrewshire** (Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Rinn Friù) is one of 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland. Located in the west central Lowlands, it is one of three council areas contained within the boundaries of the historic county of Renfrewshire, the others being Inverclyde to the west and East Renfrewshire to the east. The term Renfrewshire may also be used to refer to this historic county, also known as the County of Renfrew or Greater Renfrewshire, which remains in use as a registration county and lieutenancy area. Although containing the traditional county town of Renfrew, from which its name derives, the centre of local government in Renfrewshire is found in the nearby town of Paisley, which is the area's main settlement. Renfrewshire borders the south-west of Glasgow, lying on the south bank of the River Clyde, and contains many of Glasgow's commuter towns and villages. The ancient county of Renfrewshire covered a larger area — including both Inverclyde and East Renfrewshire. This area still exists in the form of a lieutenancy area and registration county, and has a statutory funding board called the Renfrewshire Valuation Joint Board. The county was traditionally based around its seat, the Royal Burgh of Renfrew and as such was also known as the County of Renfrew. There was also a district named Renfrew which existed between 1975 and 1996. Renfrew District covered a slightly larger area than the present local authority area, and included the towns of Barrhead, Neilston and Uplawmoor, which, following the abolition of Strathclyde Regional Council region in 1996, were transferred into the new East Renfrewshire unitary local authority.
Rep. Sec. of War
Report of Secretary of War
Req.
Requiescat ("May he [or she] rest", i.e. in peace)
Rescr.
Rescriptum ("Rescript")
Resp.
Responsum ("Reply")
REUNION.
Genealogy program
Rev.
Revelation
Rev. Ver.
Revised Version (of the Bible)
Rev. War
Revolutionary War
RG
Registered Genealogist
RGLI.
Royal Guernsey Light Infantry
Rhet.
Rhetoric
RHF.
Royal Highland Fusiliers
Ric.
Richard
Rich.
Richard
Richdus
Richard
RIII.
Roots III (ROOTS3) genealogy software program (TM) (Comsoft, Inc)
RIP
(Latin, requiescat in pace) meaning "rest in peace"
Rit.
Ritus ("Rite", "Rites")
RJLI.
Royal Jersey Light Infantry
Rlari.
Regulari ("Regular")
RMC.
Returned to Military Control (Military)
RMLI.
Royal Marine Light Infantry
RNA.
Royal Neighbors of America
Robt
Robert
ROCR
Ross & Cromarty
Rog.
Roger
Rom.
Roman
Rom.
Romanus, Romana ("Roman")
Rom.
Roman, Romans
Rom. Cath.
Roman Catholic
Rom. of R.
Romaunt of the Rose
Roma.
Romana ("Roman")
ROOTS-L.
a mailing list of subscribers who are interested in genealogy
ROXB
Boxburgh
Rpts.
reports
RQM.
Regimental Quartermaster (US Civil War)
RR
railroad
RR.
Rerum ("Of Things, Subjects" e.g. SS. RR. Ital., Writers on Italian historical subjects), Regesta
RSF.
The Royal Scots Fusiliers
RSL.
Karen's Roots Surname List
RSN.
Real Soon Now
RSOF.
Religious Society Of Friends (Quakers)
Rt. Rev.
Right Reverend
RTD.
Returned to Duty (military)
RTT.
Royal Templars of Temperance
Rub.
Ruber ("Red" Breviary)
Rubr.
Rubrica ("Rubric")
RUC.
Royal Ulster Constabulary
Russ.
Russian
RUTL
Rutland
RW.
Revolutionary War (USA)

r

rat.
rated
rcd.
recorded; received
rcdr.
recorder
rcpt.
receipt
re.
regarding
rec.
record; recorded; recorded a document; received
recrq.
received by request (Quaker)
reg.
register
rel-i-l
relative-in-law
rel.
relative, relict
reld.
relieved
relfc.
released from care of (Quaker)
relrq.
released by request (Quaker)
rem.
remove, removed
ren.
renunciation, renounced
rep.
report, representative, reprint, reprinted
repl.
replaced, replacement
repud.
repudiated
res.
research, residence, resides, resided
respectiv.
respectively
ret mbrp.
retained membership (Quaker)
ret.
retired, returned
rev.
reversed
rgstr.
registrar
rinq.
relinquished
rm(t).
reported married (to)
roc.
received on certificate (Quaker)
rocf.
received on certificate from (Quaker)
rol.
received on letter (Quaker)
rolf.
received on letter from (Quaker)
rpd.
reported
rqc.
requested certificate (Quaker)
rqct.
requested certificate to (Quaker)
rqcuc.
requested to come under care (Quaker)
rrq.
request, requests, requested
rst.
reinstate, reinstated (Quaker)

S

S
Son
S-i-l.
sister in law
S.
Sacrum ("Sacred")
S.
Suus ("His"), or Situs ("Placed"), or Sepulchrum ("Sepulchre")
S. Off.
Sanctum Officium (Congregation of the Holy Office, Inquisition)
S. Petr.
Sanctus Petrus ("St. Peter")
S., SS.
Sanctus, Sancti ("Saint", "Saints")
S.C.
Sacra Congregatio ("Sacred Congregation")
S.C.
Salesianorum Congregatio (Congregation of St. Francis of Sales Salesian Fathers)
S.C.C.
Sacra Congregatio Concilii ("Sacred Congregation of the Council", i.e. of Trent)
S.C.EE.RR.
Sacra Congregatio Episcoporum et Regularium ("Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars")
S.C.I.
Sacra Congregatio Indicis ("Sacred Congregation of the Index")
S.C.P.F.
Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide ("Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith")
S.D.
Servus Dei (Servant of God)
S.D.S.
Societas Divini Salvatoris ("Society of the Divine Saviour")
S.D.V.
Societas Divini Verbi (Fathers of the Divine Word)
S.E.
southeast
S.I.D.
Spiritus In Deo ("Spirit in God" or Spirit rests in God")
S.J.
Societas Jesu ("Society of Jesus" also known as the Jesuits)
S.J.C.
Canonici Regulares Sancti Joannis Cantii (Canons Regular of Saint John Cantius)
S.M.
Sanctae Memoriae ("Of Holy Memory")
S.M.
Societas Mariae (Marists)
S.P.
Summus Pontifex ("Supreme Pontiff", Pope)
S.P.
Sepultus ("Buried"), or Sepulchrum ("Sepulchre")
S.P.A.
Sacrum Palatium Apostolicum ("Sacred Apostolic Palace", Vatican, Quirinal)
S.P.M.
Societas Patrum Misericordiae (Fathers of Mercy)
S.R.C.
Sacra Rituum Congregatio ("Sacred Congregation of Rites")
S.R.E.
Sancta Romana Ecclesia, Sanctae Romanae Ecclesia ("Most Holy Roman Church" or, "of the Most Holy Roman Church")
S.S.S.
Societas Sanctissimi Sacramenti (Fathers of the Blessed Sacrament)
S.T.B.
Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus ("Bachelor of Sacred Theology")
S.T.D.
Sacrae Theologiae Doctor ("Doctor of Sacred Theology")
S.T.L.
Sacrae Theologiae Licentiatus ("Licentiate of Sacred Theology")
S.T.P.
Sanctae Theologiae Professor ("Professor of Sacred Theology")
S.V.
Sanctitas Vestra ("Your Holiness")
S.V.
Sacra Virgo ("Holy Virgin")
Sa
sailor
Sa
Sailor
Sab.
Sabbatum ("Sabbath", Saturday)
Sabb.
Sabbatum ("Sabbath", Saturday)
Sacr.
Sacrum ("Sacred")
SAE.
Stamped Addressed Envelope (British)
Saec.
Saeculum (Century)
Sal
saleslady
Sal
Saleslady
Sal.
Salus, Salutis ("Salvation", "of Salvation")
Salmant.
Salmanticenses (Theologians of Salamanca)
Salri.
Salutari ("Salutary")
Sam.
Samaritan
Saml
Samuel
SAR
Sons of the American Revolution
Sar.
Sarah
SASE
self-addressed stamped envelope
Sat. Rev.
Saturday Review
Sax.
Saxon
Sb
stepbrother
Sb
Stepbrother
Sbl
Step brother-in-law
SC.
Superior Court (USA)
SC. M.
Sanctae Memoriae ("Of Holy Memory")
Scand.
Scandinavian
Sci.
Science
Sci. Am.
Scientific American
Scl
step child
Scl
Step child
Scot.
Scotland, Scottish
Script.
Scripture, Scriptural
SCS
Sanctus ("Saint")
Sculp.
Sculpture
SCV
Sons of Confederate Veterans
Sd
Stepdaugther
SD.
Sedit ("He sat")
SDA
Seventh Day Adventists
Sdl
Step daughter-in-law
SDWA.
Society of the Descendants of Washington's Army at Valley Forge
Se
servant
Se.Cl
Servant's child
SELK
Selkirk
Semid.
Semiduplex ("Semi" double feast Breviary)
Sept.
September
Septuag
Septuagesima ("Seventieth day" before Easter; always a Sunday Breviary)
Serb
Serbian
Serv.
Servian
Sexag.
Sexagesima ("Sixtieth day" before Easter Breviary)
SEYM.
South Eastern Yearly Meeting (Quaker)
Sf
stepfather
Sf
Stepfather
Sfl
Step father-in-law
SGCF.
Societe Genealogique Canadienne francaise
Sgd
Step granddaughter
Sgs
Step grandson
Shak.
Shakespeare
SHET
**Shetland** (from Middle Scots Ȝetland; Scottish Gaelic: Sealtainn) is a subarctic archipelago in Scotland, off the northeast coast. The islands lie some 80 km (50 mi) to the northeast of Orkney and 280 km (170 mi) southeast of the Faroe Islands and form part of the division between the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the North Sea to the east. The total area is 1,468 km2 (567 sq mi) and the population totalled 22,210 in 2009. Comprising the Shetland constituency of the Scottish Parliament, Shetland is also one of the 32 council areas of Scotland; the islands' administrative centre and only burgh is Lerwick. The largest island, known simply as "Mainland", has an area of 967 km2 (373 sq mi), making it the third-largest Scottish island and the fifth-largest of the British Isles. There are an additional 15 inhabited islands. The archipelago has an oceanic climate, a complex geology, a rugged coastline and many low, rolling hills. Humans have lived there since the Mesolithic period, and the earliest written references to the islands date back to Roman times. The early historic period was dominated by Scandinavian influences, especially Norway, and the islands did not become part of Scotland until the fifteenth century. When Shetland became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 trade with northern Europe decreased, although fishing has continued to be an important aspect of the economy up to the present day. The discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s significantly boosted incomes, employment and public sector revenues. The local way of life reflects the joint Norse and Scottish heritage including the Up Helly Aa fire festival, and a strong musical tradition, especially the traditional fiddle style. The islands have produced a variety of writers of prose and poetry, many of whom use the local Shetlandic dialect. There are numerous areas set aside to protect the local fauna and flora, including a number of important seabird nesting sites. In 43 and 77 AD the Roman authors Pomponius Mela and Pliny the Elder referred to the seven islands they call Haemodae and Acmodae respectively, both of which are assumed to be Shetland. Another early written reference to the islands may have been when Tacitus reported that the Roman fleet had seen "Thule" from Orkney in AD 98. In early Irish literature, Shetland is referred to as Inse Catt—"the Isles of Cats", which may have been the pre-Norse inhabitants' name for the islands. The Cat tribe also occupied parts of the northern Scottish mainland and their name can be found in Caithness, and in the Gaelic name for Sutherland (Cataibh, meaning "among the Cats"). The oldest version of the modern name Shetland is Hetlandensis recorded in 1190 becoming Hetland in 1431 after various intermediate transformations. It is possible that the Pictish "cat" sound forms part of this Norse name. It then became Hjaltland in the 16th century. As Norn was gradually replaced by Scots, Hjaltland became Ȝetland. The initial letter is the Middle Scots letter, "yogh", the pronunciation of which is almost identical to the original Norn sound, "/hj/". When the use of the letter yogh was discontinued, it was often replaced by the similar-looking letter z, hence Zetland, the mis-spelled form used to describe the pre-1975 county council. Most of the individual islands have Norse names, although the derivations of some are obscure and may represent pre-Norse, possibly Pictish or even pre-Celtic names or elements.
SHRO
Shropshire
Si
sister
Si
Sister
Sig.
Sigillum ("Seal")
Silv.
Sylvester
Sim.
Simon
Simpl.
Simplex ("Simple" feast Breviary)
SIMTEL20.
Archival storage area for files
Sine Com.
Sine Commemoratione ("Without commemoration" of other feast, or feasts Breviary)
Skr.
Sanskrit
Sl
son-in-law
Sl
Son-in-law
Slav.
Slavonic
SLC.
Salt Lake City
Sm
stepmother
Sm
Stepmother
Sml
Step mother-in-law
Snia.
Sententia ("Opinion")
Sntae., Stae.
Sanctae ("Holy" or "Saints" feminine)
SO.
Survivors' Originals
Soc.
Socius, Socii ("Companion", "Companions" Breviary)
SOG.
Society of Genealogists (British)
Sol.
Solomon
SOME
Somerset
SOUNDEX.
A method of translating a name to a one letter code followed by three numerical digits. The aim of the translation is to render all names which sound alike (or sufficiently similar) to the same code.
SOWD.
Special Order War Department (US Civil War)
Sp.
Spanish
Spealer.
Specialiter ("Specially")
Specif.
Specifically
Spualibus
Spiritualibus ("In spiritual matters")
Sr.
Sister
Ss
stepson
Ss
Stepson
SS.
Scriptores ("Writers")
SS.
Sanctorum (Of the Saints)
SS.D.N
Sanctissimus Dominus Noster ("Our Most Holy Lord Jesus Christ", also a title of the Pope)
SSA.
Subscripta ("Subscribed")
SSDI.
Social Security Death Index (USA)
Ssi
Stepsister
Ssil
Step sister-in-law
Ssl
Step son-in-law
STAF
Stafford
Stat.
Statuary
Ste.
Stephen or Steven
STIR
**Stirling** (Scots: Stirlin, Scottish Gaelic: Sruighlea) is one of the 32 unitary local government council areas of Scotland, and has a population of about 87,000 (2005 estimate). It was created under the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994 with the boundaries of the Stirling district of the former Central local government region, and it covers most of the former county of Stirling (except Falkirk) and the south-western portion of the former county of Perth. Both counties were abolished for local government purposes under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973. The administrative centre of the area is the city of Stirling. The area borders the council areas of Clackmannanshire (to the east), Falkirk (to the south east), Perth and Kinross (to the north and north east), Argyll and Bute (to the north and north west), and both East and West Dunbartonshire, both to Stirling's southwest.
Su
Superintendent
Su.
superintendant
SUFF
Suffolk
Suffr.
Suffragia ("Suffrages" i.e. prayers of the saints Breviary)
Supplioni.
Supplicationibus ("Supplication" dat. or abl. case)
Surg.
Surgery
SURR
Surrey
Surv.
Surveying
Sus.
Susan or Susanna
Susna
Susanna
SUSS
Sussex
SUTH
Sutherland
SUV
Sons of Union Veterans
SUVCW.
Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War (USA)
SVPAFUG.
Silicaon Valley Personal Ancestral File Users Group
Sw.
Swedish
SWA.
Seriously Wounded in Action (military)
Syd. Soc. Lex.
Sydenham Society Lexicon
Syn.
Synodus ("Synod")
Syn.
Synonyms
Synop.
Synopsis
Syr.
Syriac
SYSOP.
SYStem OPerator a Person that maintains a computer Buletin Board System

s

s'd
said
s.
son(s); soldier; survivor; spinster; successor; shilling; south; (French sire) lord; shilling (a unit of English money)
s. and h.
son and heir
s.j.
(Latin, suo jure) meaning "in one's own right"
s.l.
sine loco ("without indication" of place of printing)
s.l.n.d.
sine loco nec data ("without indication of place" or "without date of printing")
s.p.
(Latin, sine prole) meaning "without offspring"
s.p.l.
(Latin, sine prole legitima) meaning "without legitimate offspring"
s.p.m.
(Latin, sine prole mascula) meaning "without male offspring"
s/o
son of
sc.
From the Latin scilicet meaning (being understood)
scatt.
scattering, scattered
sec.
second, secretary, section, sector, security
sep.
separated; september
serg.
sergeant
serv.
service, servant
sett.
settlers, settler
sev.
several
sgr.
(French, seigneur) meaning
sh.
share, ship
sic.
(Latin, sic) meaning "thus, as such, in such a manner or as written"
sil
son-in-law
sin.
From the Latin sine meaning without
sing.
singular
sis.
sister
sn.
From the Latin sine meaning without
soc.
society, societies
soc.roots.
a Usenet newsgroup for people interested in genealogy
sp.
(Latin, sine prole) meaning "without children"
sp.bl.
special bail
sp.impl.
special imparlance
spell.
spelling, spelled
spf.
(Latin, sine prole femina) meaning "without daughters"
spl.
(Latin, sine prole legitima) meaning "without legitimate issue"
spm.
(Latin, sine prole mascula) meaning "without sons"
spms.
(Latin, sine prole mascula superstite) meaning "without surviving sons"
spr.
sponsor
sps.
(Latin, sine prole superstite) meaning
sr.
senior
srnms.
surnames
st.
saint, street, state
subj.
subjunctive
sup.
supply, superior
superl.
superlative
supt.
superintendant
sur.
surety
surg.
surgeon
sw.
swear; sworn
syl.
syllable

T

T.
Township
T.
Titulus, Tituli ("Title", "Titles")
T.C.
town copy
TAG.
The American Genealogist (quarterly journal published since 1922)
Tart.
Tartaric
Teleg.
Telegraphy
Temp.
Tempus, Tempore ("Time", "in time")
Ten
Tenant
Test.
Testes, Testimonium ("Witnesses", "Testimony")
Test.
Testament
TFE.
The Family Edge computer genealogy program
Theo.
Theodore
Theol.
Theologia ("Theology")
Theol.
Theology
Thes.
Thessalonians
Thia, Theolia.
Theologia ("Theology")
Thos
Thomas
TIA.
Thanks In Advance
TIB
Temple (Records) Index Bureau, Temple Index Bureau file.
TIFF.
A format to hold image data picture on a computer disk file
Tim.
Timothy
Tim.
Timothy
Tit.
Titulus, Tituli ("Title", "Titles")
Tli. Tituli
("Titles")
Tm.
Tantum ("So much" or "Only")
TM.
Testamentum ("Testament")
TMG.
The Master Genealogist computer genealogy program
TMS.
Tiny Tafels Software genealogy program also Tafel Matching System
Tn.
Tamen ("Nevertheless")
Todd & B.
Todd & Bowman
Tp.
Township
Trans.
Translation
Treas.
Treasury
TRIB
Temple Records Index Bureau
Trig.
Trigonometry
TSR.
A computer program that is run and then Terminated and Stays Resident in the memory of the computer untill the computer is shut down.
TSSF.
Third Order of St. Francis
TT.
Tiny-Tafel
TT.
Titulus, Tituli ("Title", "Titles")
Turk.
Turkish
TVA
Tennessee Valley Authority
TVC.
Texas Veterans Commission
Typog.
Typography

t

t.p.
title page
t.p.m.
title page mutilated
t.p.w.
title page wanting
tak.
taken
temp.
temporarily
ten.
tenant
term.
termination
terr.
territory
test.
witness
tho.
though
thot.
thought
thro.
through
tn.
town, township
top.
topographical
tr.
troop, translated, translation
transcr.
transcribed
transfrd.
transferred
transl.
translation
treas.
treasurer
twn.
town
twp.
township
ty.
territory

U

U
uncle
U
Uncle
U. S.
United States
U. S. Disp.
United States Dispensatory
U. S. Int. Rev. Statutes
United States Internal Revenue Statutes
U. S. Pharm.
United States Pharmacop
U.K.
United Kingdom
UBCJA.
United Brotherhood of Carpenters & Joiners of America
UCV.
United Confederate Veterans
UDA.
United Daughters of America
UDC
United Daughters of the Confederacy
UFT.
Ultimate Family Tree (software)
Ul
Uncle-in-law
Ult.
Ultimo ("Last" day, month, year)
Univ.
University
Up.
Upper
Urs.
Ursula
USCG
United States Coast Guard
USCT
United States Colored Troops
USGW.
USGenWeb (online collective providing genealogical resources via linked webpages)
USIA.
U.S. Information Agency
USIGS.
United States Internet Genealogical Society
USMC
United States Marine Corps
USN
United States Navy
Usq.
Usque ("As far as")
USV.
United States Volunteers (US Civil War)
USWPA
United States Works Progress Administration
Ux.
Uxor ("Wife")

u

uc.
under care of (Quaker)
ult.
(Latin ultimo) meaning "of last month"
un.
unknown
unasgd.
unassigned
unc.
uncle
unit.
uniting, united
unk.
unknown
unm.
unmarried
unorg.
unorganized
upl.
using profane language (Quaker)
usu.
usually
ux.
(Latin uxor) wife

V

V.
Vester ("Your")
V.
Vixit ("He Lived"), or Vixisti ("Thou didst Live")
V. Rev.
Very Reverend
V. X.
Vivas, Care (or Cara) ("Mayest thou Live, Dear One"), or Uxor Carissima ("Most Dear Wife")
V.C.
Vir Clarissimus ("A Most Illustrious Man")
V.D.M.
Minister of the word of God
V.F.
Vicarius Foraneus ("Vicar Forane")
V.G.
Vicarius Generalis ("Vicar General")
V.H.
Vir Honestus ("A Worthy Man")
V.L.
Vulgar Latin
V.M.
Vir Magnificus ("Great Man")
V.T.
Vetus Testamentum
Vac.
Vacat, Vacans ("Vacant")
Val.
Valor ("Value")
Val.
Valentine
Vat.
Vaticanus ("Vatican")
VB.
Vir Bonus ("A Good Man")
Vba.
Verba ("Words")
VDT.
a computer video display terminal
Ven.
Venerabilis, Venerabiles ("Venerable")
Venebli
Venerabili ("Venerable")
Vers.
Versiculus ("Versicle" Breviary)
Vesp.
Vesperae ("Vespers" Breviary)
Vest.
Vester ("Your")
Veter.
Veterinary
VFW
Veterans of Foreign Wars
Vi
visitor
Vi
Visitor
Vic. For.
Vicarius Foraneus ("Vicar Forane")
Vid.
Vidua ("Widow" Breviary)
Videl.
Videlicet ("Namely")
Vig.
Vigilia ("Vigil" of a feast Breviary)
Vinc.
Vincent
Viol.
Violaceus ("Violet" Breviary)
VIP
Very Important Person
Virg.
Virgo ("Virgin" Breviary)
Virid.
Viridis ("Green" Breviary)
Vis. or Visc.
Viscount, Viscountess
Vitr.
Vitruvius
Vrae.
Vestrae ("Your")
VRC.
Veteran Reserve Corps (US Civil War)
VV.
Venerabilis, Venerabiles ("Venerable")
VV. CC.
Viri Clarissimi ("Most Illustrious Men")
VVI.
Vermont Volunteer Infantry (US Civil War)

v

v.
verb
v.a.
From the Latin vixit annos meaning (s)he lived (a certain number) years
v.i.
intransitive verb
v.r.
vital records
v.s.
vital statistics
v.t.
transitive verb
var.
various, variation, variant
var.
variety
vb.n.
verbal noun
vf.
(Latin, vita fratris) meaning "in the lifetime of his brother"
vit.
vital
viz.
(Latin, videlicet) meaning "of course, to be sure, clearly, plainly or namely"
vm.
(Latin, vita matris) meaning "in the lifetime of his mother"
vols.
volunteers, volumes
vp.
(Latin, vita patris) meaning
vs.
(Latin, vita sororis) meaning
vz.
(Welsh, verch) meaning "daughter of"

W

W
Wife
W.
wife; week; white(meaning caucasian)
W.
Welsh
W.B.
Will Book
W.O.
Warrant Officer
W.S.
Writer to the Signet
Wa
warden
Wa
Warden
WAC.
Women's Army Corp
Wai
waitress
Wai
Waitress
Wall.
Wallachian
Walt.
Walter
Ward
Ward
WARW
Warwick
Westm. Cat.
Westminster Catechism
Westm. Rev.
Westminster Review
WIGT
Wigtown
WILT
Wiltshire
Win.
Winifred
Wkm
workman
Wkm
Workman
WLOT
West Lothian
Wm
William
WMOR
Westmoreland
WORC
Worcestershire
WOTW.
Woodmen Of The World
WOW.
Woodmen Of The World
WPA
Works Progress Administration
WRC.
Women's Relief Corps
WRHS
Western Reserve Historical Society
Wt
waiter
Wt
Waiter
WW1.
World War One
WW2.
World War Two

w

w.d.
will dated
w.p.
will probated, will proved, white poll
w/c.
with consent of
w/o
wife of
w/pwr.
with power (Quaker)
wag.
wagoner
wd.
widow, ward
wf.
wife
wf/o
wife of
wh.
who, which
wid.
widow
widr
widower
wit.
witness
wk(s).
week(s)
wnt.
wants
wrkd.
worked
wtn.
witness
ww.
widow
ww/o
widow of
wwr.
widower

X

X
The Greek letter X which is pronounced Kai meaning Christ or Christian, a mark made by a person instead of a signature
X.
Christus ("Christ")
XC.
Christus ("Christ" from the first and middle letters of the Greek name)
XCS.
Christus ("Christ" from the first, middle, and last letters of the Greek name)
Xn.
Christian
Xnty.
Christianity
XPC.
Christus ("Christ")
Xped.
Christened
Xpr
Christopher
Xr.
Christian
XS.
Christus ("Christ")
Xt.
Christ
Xtian.
Christian
Xtianus
Christian
Xtopherus
Christopher
Xty.
Christianity

x

x ch.
exchange
x.
married, Christ

y

y.
year; years
yd.
graveyard
yr.
year, younger, your

Y

Ye
the: where y represents the Old English letter thorn which is pronounced th
YM.
yearly meeting (Quaker)
YRKS
Yorkshire
Yt
that: where y represents the Old English letter thorn which is pronounced th

Z

Zach.
Zachariah
Zech.
Zechariah
Zeph.
Zephaniah
Zo
Zo

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